Editions for adults on the issues of the family, violence overcoming, conflict resolution

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Editions for parents

Editions for women on the issues of starting own small-scale business

Editions for women on the issues of participation in the elections

Presentations of Valentina Bondarovska on 60th UN Session

 

 

 

         EDITIONS FOR ADULTS ON THE ISSUES OF THE FAMILY,    VIOLENCE OVERCOMING, CONFLICT RESOLUTION

News!   

FAMILY IN POST-SOVIET UKRAINE : THE PHYCHOHISTORICAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS

Valentina M. Bondarovskaia  

Ukraine , the new independent country of the Former Soviet Union, is going through  the complicated period of transition to new values, new economy system, new socio-political system. Many of the habitual ideas and  conceptions  of  human relations, of  self-esteem, of the responsibility for him(her)self, family, children are destroying or changing. The relationships between people are changing in their workplaces. The people attitudes to power, law, property, from one side, and to their selves,  death,  family, children are changing, from another side. All of these processes are reflecting the deep economic, ecological ( Chernobyl disaster),socio-political and psychological crisices of the society.

Ukraine Human Development Report 1995 issued by United Nations indicates that post-Soviet Ukraine is the society living with poverty, diseases, reduced life expectancy and high unemployment. The document outlined how  the  transition from 70  years  of  communism to a market-oriented independent  state  has  made  millions  destitute and undetermined educational and  social  institutions.  Living standard shave declined 80%  in a 28-month period after independence, with some families up to 82%  of their budget on food. The average life span for men declined  from  66.1  years  in 1991 to 63.5 in 1993 and for women from 75.2 to 73.4 years.  Infant mortality climbed from 12.3 per 1,000 in 1990  to  14.9  by  1993  (1).  New  demography data show that this tendency is going into the same charge:  the average life span for men declined :  to  62.8  in 1994 and to 62.2 in 1995;  and for women - to 73.2 and 72.9, accordingly(2).

All human  problems  are  beginning and finishing inside family. The family is the background of the main  human  values  conservation. The Ukrainian family has its long and very specific psychohistory. The nuclear family have formed in Ukraine in XIX century. The young families usual had own house,  the ownership of land. But in Ukraine parents never lost the help of children in their old age.  As  usual  one  son lived with  parents,  on  the  Left  bank  of Dnipro river it was the youngest son,  on the Right bank - the oldest.  If family had any sons this role  played  daughter.  It  was  usual  for Ukrainians  to have agreements between parents and son (or daughter) about  conditions  of living the rest of parents days and inheritance of their property.

As the power character the Ukrainian family in  XIX  century  was patriarchal. All  family members were depended from the Head (the more often father)  that  managed  the  family  property. Ukrainian legislation didn't support that only one person can order the family property. In the end of XIX century Ukrainian family moved to the process of the   democratization and nuclearization of  family relationships. In the West bank of Dnieper and on the South of Ukraine the family  property  were  divided  between the family members almost equally, not only between sons but also between daughters. On the East Bank of  Dnipro the  situation  was  more  close to Lithuania family status - women had some rights for family property but with many terms and limitations(3).

Really women in Ukrainian families as in  comparison  with  other ethnic groups, for instance with Russian families, had more equal rights and status.  For example woman (wife, daughter) as equal family member had the rights for family property,  for dowry, etc. The relationships in Ukrainian families as usual  were  concordinal.  Quit  often  woman could be the head of the family.

Traditionally many Ukrainian men took parts in  the  local  wars for the  Ukrainian independency.  Women in the situation of men absence began to play role of the family head. Some equality inside family began to turn out. This family situation had the strong social support from community. The community had also the strong conception about divorces.

As the main reason for divorce the community considered only the impossibility to have children or serious sickness. So there were a very few divorces in Ukrainian families at the beginning of XX century- about 0.5 for 1,000 marriages(3). The socio- economic relations were the base of the family solidity. "Economy is a background of the family",- it was known between people in Ukraine .

At the same time in Russia there has always been a gross inequality of the sexes inside families. Traditionally Russian woman was the slave of her man. Among the peasantry a daughter was expected to be obedient to her father until he married her off, whereupon she was required to submit to the will of her husband. The husband became her "father" within the patriarchal peasant culture. Among the gentry the situation was not very different (4).

The equality was not usual for Russian family. It was normal for husband to beat wife or children. Among the Russian peasantry the father's abuse of the mother would often take place right in front of the children. Within the traditional peasant family the father was a harsh disciplinarian who had right to decide who they married, to determine where they would live, etc.(4).

Peter Chaadaev, famous Russian philosopher of XIX century wrote: "In our own houses we are as on billeting, in families we are as strangers, in the towns we are as nomads"(5).

If in Ukrainian culture the image of Mother (Ukrainian Bereginia, something as woman-rescuer) is sacred, in Russia is usual to swear making a nasty sexual reference about someone's mother. Other famous Russian philosopher of the beginning  of XX century Cergej Bulgakov wrote: "Did You ever think what horrible sense must have ... the habit to mother swearing that always had Russian lands?.. And Church, and school never could do nothing... It seems that the Motherland is exhausted with this villainous unceasing profanation"(6).

Daniel Rancour-Laferriere analyzed many aspects of Russian family life and he concludes that "... expressions of hostility toward the mother should not be separated from the adoration of Mother Russia - and of Russian mothers generally... It can at least be said that ambivalence characterizes the Russian fascination with maternal imagery. The image of the mother can arouse feeling of both love and hate, submission and rebellion"(4).

Divorces were unusual in Russia before Revolution but as usual husband had beaten his wife and children. In Russian culture there is the direct relation between man's sexuality and violence. All problems of family property had the direct control from commune. After 1861 the Russian peasant was not able to own arable land. He depended on the commune to parcel in out periodically. This commune decision depended from the quantity of family members - married couple that could work or adult men, etc. In most cases the peasant could not sell or to pass on to offspring. The peasant really has the property only to his house with small piece of land, some buildings and women had their dowry. So the most Russian families, the peasants' families completely depended from commune.

As we can see there were the deep psycho historical differences between Russian and Ukrainian family traditions. Unfortunately Russian empire had a big influence for Ukrainian history and traditions. It was not only the cultural and linguistic pressure, it was the economic pressure.

"The social effects of Russian control were disastrous. They imposed serfdom on Ukraine and, as serfs did not need education, closed most of the schools. The number of schools on the east bank of the Dnipro river, which divides the country in two, fell from 866 in 1740 to none in 1800. An edict issued in 1876 decreed that Ukrainian was a bastardized version of Russian and made it a crime to publish in Ukrainian materials "for elementary reading by the people". One result of this edict was that the rate of illiteracy increased - by the end of the 19th century, 80% of Ukrainians could not read or write"(7).

It is possible to imagine what influence had Russian empire pressure to family traditions in Ukraine , but as it is known the family is the social system where the psycho historical structures have the conditions for safety and surviving. Ukrainian peasant family saved many traditions and in the beginning of 20th century, especially a tradition to respect Mother as a

"Bereginia" (protection person) of a family home. From the first moments of the soviet time Bolsheviks considered the family as one of the main objects for attack. It was created new legislation about the civil marriage and divorce. It was created the new ideology for family, children upbringing. One of the Bolsheviks' ideologist Peter Stuchka wrote, that "the family is the form of the slavery"(8). In the "Small Soviet encyclopedia" it was written, that very soon the family will die together with private property and State (9).

The revolutionary legislation "set free" women and did equal their rights with men. The conception of religious marriage was destroyed. It was created the ideology of the state  collective upbringing of children as enthusiasts-informers.

The deep influence to family structure and  to relationships between family members had the Bolsheviks' approach to the personality from the position of his(her) social lineage. If your lineage is proletarian (from poorest parts of the society) You have all social rights and can have the trust from state structures. If your lineage is bourgeois You are the potential enemy of the society and cannot have the equal rights with other members of society. The bourgeois lineage closed for person the doors of the universities and the possibility to do career. Communist' propaganda supported all cases of family treachery. The famous Pavlik Morozov became the soviet national hero because he betrayed his father and gave to Bolsheviks' structures the information about family store for the grain.

This approach raised the big conflicts inside families and the deep psychological issues for most people. It was the time of rousing of many new typical psychological models (we will analyze its later). The main of these models were the double moral and the compromise between the Good and Evil. It was usually to use such imperatives as: "The aim justify the tools" (Stalin), "If the enemy not gives in, he needs to be annihilated"(Maxim Gorkij), "If someone fells the forest the slivers fly" (Stalin).

Fear and Lie became the general managers of human behavior. Parents were afraid to speak with their own children about their lineage. The social relay-race was interrupted.

In 20 years of XX century Bolsheviks had the conscious task to destroy the family. They believed that the family is the same object for dying as the private property and the State. The new system of the education was directed for formation the young women and children special psychological models of the woman freedom, of the free love, of free sexual relationships, etc. They believed that the "flying Eros" and "free love" will destroy the bourgeois family. They believed to the class and sexual harmony.

Most people of new soviet empire were peasants( more than 80%). Here the new communist ideas about family, free love met the big opposition. In this situation the main ideologists of communism Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Alexander Voronsky, Alexandra Kollontaij and others, later Josef Stalin paid the big attention to family institution, to the creating of so  named new moral. "The proletarian power explained to people that they have the rights to marry without any magic gestures and songs of persons in the soutanes or in the others sacred clothes", - wrote Leon Trotsky(10). And Vladimir Lenin believed, that the theatre can substitute religion.

There were created the new communist ceremonies - "the red wedding", "the red christening", even the new soviet names such as "Vladlen"(shortly from Vladimir Lenin), "Oktiabrina"(from October Revolution), later "Stalina" (from Stalin), etc.

It was created so named new moral. There were usual at 20-th years the immoral propagations and many discussions  about family, sexual freedom, the struggle with the old mode of life. Professor A. Zalkind in his book "The Revolution and the Youth" developed the theory of the special proletarian morals(11). He wrote: "The old morals are dead, are decomposed, are stagnated. The new state class is moving to the proscenium. He will develop his own special rules of the behavior, own ethic...".

Here are some examples of this inspection of Christian ethic: - "Revere the Father", - the Proletariat recommends to revere only such father who believes to revolution and proletarian ideas. The other fathers need to be re-educated by their children. The interests of the revolutionary class are more important then the father's happiness. - "Don't do adultery" is wrong formula. The sexual life is the inalienable part of the proletariat's battle arsenal. The main is the class expediency. the choice of the sexual partner depends from class usefulness.

All communist theoretics were agree that State has a right to manage the intimate person's life.

The collectivization was the last stroke to family. Liquidation of the individual peasant farms provoked the destruction of so named "bourgeois" family.

On the first step of this moving against family Bolsheviks were oriented to Women (freedom from family slavery) and Youth, On the seconds step the main orientation was to Youth. Robert Konkvest considered that Stalin had the consciosous aim to destroy the family relationships (8). The hatred to class enemies, fear, lie and denunciation became the base of new moral. The system of state education formed new people who were the instruments of family destruction. One of the slogans of this time was: When we destroy family hearth we strike the last blow to the bourgeois system"(8).

In 1918 Ukraine had declared its independence. Ukraine became the first East European country to be forcibly seized by Russia . Stalin didn't forget an aspiration of Ukraine to its independence. "Stalin launched a terror famine against Ukraine aimed at crushing the independent peasantry and the last vestiges of Ukrainian nationalism. By the early 1930th the country was "one vast Belsen, in which one-quarter of the rural population was dead or dying, while well-fed police supervised the victims"(Conquest). The famine killed more people than did the whole of the first world war"(7). It is known now that more than 6 millions people dead in Ukrainian villages this time.

The survivors needed to begin a new soviet life in new conditions.

The many peasants became now the workers, moved to cities. There were not enough apartments for people living. It was created that it is possible to live 4-9 families in so named communal apartment. One room - for one family, and one kitchen, one bathroom, one toilet for all families that are living in the same apartment. People had the terrible conditions for living. The quantity of workers in the period from 1928 to 1940 became in three times more in Soviet Union (12).

This process of the family destruction was finished at the end of 20-th years- the beginning of 30-th. It was new era of Stalin's authoritarian regime.

Many peasants became that time the workers and moved to cities. There were not enough apartments for people to live. It was introduced the idea that it is possible to live 4-9 families in so named communal apartment. One room - per one family, and the only one kitchen, one bathroom, one toilet for all families that are living in the same apartment. People had the terrible conditions for living. The quantity of workers  in the period from 1928 to 1940 became three times more in Soviet Union (12).

This process of the family destruction was finished at the end of 20-th years and the beginning of 30-th. It was new era of Stalin's authoritarian regime.

The family as a social structure was destroyed. In 1934 there were 37 divorces per 100 marriages. 57,000 childbirth versus 154,000 abortions were registrated in Moscow hospitals. The level of birth rate was very low. Many orphans lived in special child houses and right on the streets(12). It was the issue not only of family destroying politics but also the issue of the process of collectivization and mass repressions, artificial famine.

Communist Party began to understand that it was time to change a family politics. Mass media began in 1934-35 the campaign for strengthening the family values. So named "free love" was announced as the result of bourgeois influence. It was created a new soviet morals more severe than Puritan morals of Victorian England. New laws had limited the freedom of divorces and abortions. It was created new totalitarian model of the family (8,12). We can agree with Erich Fromm and Wilhelm Reich that totalitarian state needs totalitarian family as a social institution. This thesis was very clear for Stalin and his surrounding. They organized the great campaign in order to spread totalitarian Puritan family model.

Totalitarian society announced the struggle against sexuality. It was established the separate schools for girls and boys. There were any information about sexual relations in the society information space. The information on sexual relations became very secret and unknown. I remember one day in 1950 or 1951 in the girl school when one of girls brought a book about sexual relations between man and woman. It caused a sensation in the class. Girls had the great interest to that secret book and at the same time they experienced fear because it was something forbidden. It is a good illustration for Wilhelm Reich thesis that authoritarian society always fights against teenagers' sexuality (13). As I remember, girls  that were educated in the girl's schools were not permitted to invite boys to their festivals and parties in school. Only in the exclusive cases the girl could receive a special permission from the school director. I remember also a large special pioneer's meeting when we were about 12 years. We discussed a very important event: one girl from our class had a meeting with boy, it was just the ordinary friendly meeting. But it was the event! Teacher demanded that all girls must blame a bad behavior of that girl, and that miserable girl had to promise that she would never have meetings with boys. I remember how desparated was that girl and how she cried.

The absence of information on sexual relations plus the Puritan model of the family plus living the whole family in the only one room issued in sexual inhibition of the personality. "Sexual inhibition make up the base both for individual's family reserve and his self-conscious"(13). As usual young folks that wanted to marry had any experience in intimate relations between sexes. Absence of necessary information about sexual relations, contraceptives, the existence of family Puritan moral as the main family model of society issued in the situation that a marriage in sexual context became as a some secret activity with constant fear of pregnancy. Girls as a rule got married having no idea about sexual relations but with the same feelings as had have women at the time of Euripid in Ancient Greece. "And now women that are going to the new life... it is necessary to guess at what conditions and with whom she will share the bed", told Medea in the famous tragedy of Euripid (14). Soviet women at Stalin's time had the same situation, in fact.

Soviet people accepted those family models. They believed that a family is the only one human refuge. However State had the influence and pressure on all human structures in Soviet Union . Famous Soviet teacher Anton Makarenko in his "Book for parents" wrote that parents are responsible for right education of their children, for their upbringing as the future citizens of socialistic society (8).

     The gender equality that announced communist ideologists on the first stages of the Soviet society development was liquidated. There were a fantastic situation with women life in Soviet Union . Women did the most hard work in society, managed all problems inside family, did the whole house work and managed the upbringing of children but at the same time women had any influence on social life of the society. The common life of an ordinary woman in Soviet Union in the decades after 1970 was shown in one of the most popular works of Soviet fiction film by Natalya Baranskaya's novella "Nedelya kak nedelya"("A week Like Any Other")(15). Francine du Plessix Gray in her book "Soviet Women. Walking the Tightrope" wrote about Olga, heroine of this novella life style: "Like many working mothers, the heroine, Olga, lives far away from work-office, in a new district of the Moscow periphery where there are as yet no stores; she runs into her laboratory on Monday mornings, she is often late because of some problems with her children, interpreting every look or word from her superiors as a reprimand; after work she runs and flies from bus stops to trolley stops to subway stops to sparserely stocked grocery stores, her arms laden with groceries, often stumbling, scraping her knees. Yet this is a privileged life. Olga and her husband are research scientists with advanced university degrees...". A whole picture of ordinary soviet woman life is: "Food shortages; eternal queues; indifferent doctors hastily attending children who constantly get ill from sloppily run nursery schools; a dearth of the most basic household implements or services; passive husbands buried in TV or newspapers who never lift a finger to help out"(16).

In psychological context in soviet families woman became the main figure. Many soviet families lost men at the time of Stalin's repressions and at the time of World War II. It was formed new generation of women who needed to reach, to demand, to obtain something in order that their families would survive. It was formed a new psychological type of woman - powerful, decisive, forceful, supressful, dictatorial personality. There was a family head coping the totalitarian state dictator. It was fantastic situation: these women as usual loved the Main Man - State, believed Him and carried out His will(17).

It was formed soviet type of the family in the whole: mothers gave orders, suppressed, were capricious, lapsed into hysterics. Fathers kept silence (if the family had father). Children believed that it is true family model: mothers work very hard inside family and outside, solve all family problems, manage all family money and are the family dictators. At the same time men possess all power in the society. There were no place for women on the top level of the power. It was established an antiwomen model of society. There were some  women in Soviet Parliament (Verhovnii Soviet), in Government but really there were no women who made social, political or economical decisions.

Ukrainian families suffered from Soviet Power more than others. Ukraine not only lost about 6 millions people at the time of 1933 famine but lost the main psycho historical conditions of family life style and children upbringing. The next tragedy was the fascist occupation in 1941-1944. Ukraine lost millions and millions people, millions and millions men. After the II-nd War Stalin began new repressions against the Ukrainians, against Jews, deported many people from West Ukraine .

system. In this context, we consider it is especially important not only to investigate and grasp the ethics of totalitarian regimes, but also to remember that the psychological model of "Soviet" people remain today in post-totalitarian societies of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Following this aim, we conducted a psychologically and psychohistorically-focused research project to grasp the nature of the current psychological constructs and to assess the social and psychological consequences of the soviet totalitarian regime on people. To identify these psychological constructs we observed the relationship of group people to a list of key factors, we also used methods of cross-cultural and psycho historical analysis of psychosocial situation in Former Soviet Union. For the representation of our results we used the conception of the psychological model. The psychological models in our context are the cognitive, emotional and ethic-religious constructs that determine the person's behavior and appear as the result of the family, education and social peculiarities influences on the person. Here we also can see the system of the person's attitudes - to him/herself, to family, to child, to power, to work, etc. We also studied the general values and other psychological consequences of the Stalin's concept that the person is the small part of the big social machine. Figure 1 is a scheme of the basic assumptions of the "soviet" person understanding with pointing out the main formed specific features.

In the area of personal responsibility, the "soviet" citizen was culturally trained in learned helplessness and dependency. The State oversaw the planning, organising and implementing of all facets of each individual's life. Some persons in the political hierarchy determined when and which apartment a person would receive, the metric allotment for each person (in Moscow it was 9 sq. meter/person while in Kyiv it was 13,5 sq. meters/person), the time and manner for receiving vacation leave and doctor and clinic to use. The "soviet" citizen could be employed only at one organization. There was no choice for another profession and no opportunities to work more time in order to earn more money. This situation created a patronymic system that functioned like a family. Indeed, this system was designed to destroy the nuclear family  and replace it with a collective  "family". Consequently, people believed that it was the responsibility of someone else to solve the problems of each individual and each family, that creates a lack of response What are the psychological consequences of the Soviet period of Ukraine ?

 Let  us analyse the psychological models of post-soviet persons. Our primary goal was to identify the typical psychological constructs of people who lived under communist totalitarian regime in the Former Soviet Union(18).

During the period between 1986 and 1993, many outstanding intellectual and humanitarian citizens from Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and Western countries tried to understand the psychological model of "soviet" people. The Ukrainian sociologist E.Golovaha and his colleagues, for example, attempted to describe the characteristics of the common people during the time of the Russian Empire and the time of the October Revolution 1917(19). They identified several common psychological constructs: collective thinking, maximalism and dependency on authorities.

The investigations of Vladimir Lefebvre and Julii Shreider with subjects from Soviet Union and United States identified two different Ethic systems. They found a correlation between the ideology, morals and behavior on relationship between Good and Evil(20, 21). The most interesting part of the Lefebvre's approach was the finding the correlation between the "soviet" ethic system and self-destructive behavior. Countries where Good and Evil were compromised used means to keep people psychologically separate, killed their heroes, lacked skills in resolving conflicts and found opportunities for opposing sides in a conflict to each preserve their dignity. In contrast, Americans refused compromise between Good and Evil, sought to unify people. According to the findings of V. Lefebvre and J. Shreider's researches, mass self destruction was possible in the "Soviet" ethic system and impossible in the American ethic ability in people for their own welfare.

In the area of unpretentiousness, Stalin's regime indoctrinated people with the imperative that "person should be modest". This cultivated a model of limited human needs. This imperative actually appeared during the period of the Russian Empire during 19th century when famous Russian historian Karamzin's group encouraged a modest way of life. The Bolshevik Communist Party declared anything more than "modest" to be "bourgeois" and unsuitable for new communist life. As a result, "soviet" citizens learned to limit their needs in life to few basic necessities: a small choice of food; a small flat with six foot ceilings occupied by four, five or six people; a very few clothes worn for many years; sometimes a car and a small plot of ground in the country with simple house on it for rests. This was the limit of the soviet person's dreams at the end of the 1980's. The most women had their special dreams: all these small needs they wanted to receive from their husbands, most of them hated their hard and boring work and hard conditions of life that we showed above.

Now in the time of the post-soviet society transformation it is important to understand completely the inner psychological people constructs, the psychological models of post-soviet human behavior, the differences between people constructs in democratic and totalitarian societies, to create the ideas and technologies of person's and family's constructs transformations.

In our cross-cultural and psycho historical analysis we used the next main directions of the psychological modeling:

- cognitive;

- emotional;

- ethic-religious;

- pattern proper (the system of attitudes and values).

In the context of cognitive level of psychological modeling we consider three sublevels of the analysis:

- psycho-historical level;

- informational level;

- cognitive proper level.

On psycho historical sublevel we analyzed the influence of past experience of the society to the person's psychological constructs and his(her) behavior. We considered also the social models of the past, present and future, psychosocial models of the individual, family, small group.

On the informational sublevel we analyzed the main directions of the soviet totalitarian information space functioning. We analyzed psychologically the society information space in the different periods of communist regime and the information space of the individual, family, small groups. We did the cross-cultural analysis of the designed society information space and the communist and post-communist societies information spaces. We considered also the information base of person's and his(her) family inner exile in communist society.

Proper cognitive sublevel is important. Stalin's paradigm that person is only the small part of the big machine created the special approach to the communist education system and the system of family upbringing. For example, in these systems there were paid no attention to developing the person's strategic thinking. Totalitarian communist society as we supposed had the direct influence on such human cognitive structures as strategic and tactical thinking, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, planning and judgment.

On the emotional level we considered three directions: person's needs, feelings and psychical status. We supposed that communist regime had the strong pressure on the development of human needs and feelings. We also interested in the correlation and domination of the different person's feelings on the psychical state of people and the society as the whole.

On the ethic-religious level of psychological modeling we considered two sublevels: spiritual and comparative. The communist ideology as we could see above invaded to the very deep spiritual structures of the person. It is important to analyze how deep and constant was this intervention. The conceptions of God, life and death, Good and Evil were the subjects of the communist propaganda. It is important to understand how families and people adopted communist ethic system, what models of behavior created the communist slogans such as "The goal justify the means" or "We have to obtain this result by any worth".

On the level of the pattern proper modeling we consider the main person's attitudes that define his(her) believeness and behavior. We consider three parts of these attitudes: attitudes of person to Life and Death, to his (her) own life and state of health, to his(her) safety; some social attitudes: to Power(governmental structures), to Law, to Family, to Work; attitudes to surviving conceptions and skills (I am a victim or I am a survivor).

We analyzed the socio-political, psychological and sociological texts about consequences of communist regime in psychological and psycho historical contexts.  We also did the analysis of author's experimental data about peculiarities of strategic thinking of teenagers and adults in the Former Soviet Union (experimental investigations in 1967 -1986)(22,23) and the data of J.Bruner and his followers' investigations of people strategic thinking in the West countries(24,25,26).

As a coordinator of UN Project "Psychological support of the families in Ukraine"(1994-1995) I could investigate some attitudes of post soviet population in Ukraine do psychodiagnostic job with my colleagues in International humanitarian Centre "ROZRADA" for different groups of people of different age in post-soviet space, to work with families in Kyiv-city.

My work since 1990 with professors. Janae and Barry Weinhold and Dr. Patricia Cox(USA) as a cross-cultural psychological team helped me to compare the psychological models of post-soviet people and people who live in the developed countries.

We discussed earlier how historically developed the life of soviet person and his(her) family. Now it is important to discuss the results of human development in Former Soviet Union and the situation that turned out for people and families in the time of society transition.

Let us see some results of our analysis on cognitive level. On the psycho historical level we could see how the last experience of the society, social models of the past, present and future inside family, educational system and social thinking have the influence on the person's inner life and behavior. We discussed the consequences of the Soviet Power activity to the life of families, children, and women...

On the informative sublevel of analysis we can see how Communist Power created the specific information space for people. Many cultural treasures were removed from local museums and not available for people. The information space was strongly defined for people. Each radio receiver in Stalin's time was registrated by NKVD (later KGB). Later in Chruchev and Brejnev time the politics of the strong control of the information space continued in other, not so strong form.

On the cognitive proper level communist educational system worked. The main task of this educational machine was the developing of certain people’s mental structures that could be helpful in the military enterprises on a middle level of decision. This educational system was very far from the developing of the personality freethinking, his (her) strategic thinking, decision making, own responsibility.

Paternalism was also one of the main features that had the ordinary soviet person. In the whole on the cognitive level of modeling we can see that the cognitive space of soviet personality had such characteristics:

   - limited information space;

   - the absence of freedom;

   - the fear as the constant emotional life manager;

   - the lie as the way of the person's surviving;

   - unmoulding of the person's strategic thinking;

   - unmoulding of the planning skills that so necessary for person. At the same time there was the informational pressure for the person with the slogan: "We are living in the planning society";

   - unmoulding of "time feeling", the absence of responsible relations between time and person actions;

   - the attack to the national languages and traditions, destroying of the inner harmony of the person that he/she acquires across the unification of the national mental/emotional space and nature conditions.

In this context we could pick out The System of the Psychological Jails of Soviet Person. This system has the big influence for the society in the time of  the social, psychological, political and economical transitions.

The main of cognitive psychological jails of post-soviet people are:

    - strategical jails;

    - jails of planning;

    - jails of negative image of economical activity;

    - jail of unpretentiousness (notion about life quality).

Communist regime established the special balance between people small needs, small salaries and small quantities of goods in stores.

Ukraine during the existence of soviet regime was under special attention of Soviet Power. It was created the strategy to move  all Ukrainian talented and active persons to Central Zone of active thinking and more interesting life - to Moscow especially. During the soviet period Ukraine was loosing not only millions people at the time of artificial famine, time of collectivization, time of Second War II but systematically was loosing most active people who worked in the Central Committee of Communist Party, in Government, in many scientific institutes and military enterprises in Russia. Many Ukrainians extracted mineral oil in Siberia and continue to work for extracting mineral oil now.

Ukraine had the special pressure for its national identity. In 1947 Stalin approved the Ukrainian spelling close to Russian. Intellectuals (Ivan Svetlichnii, Eugen Sverstuk, Vasil Stus and others)who began at the end of 60th to create new national identity were arrested at the beginning of 1970th, tortured and poisoned more than 12 years. This terror established in Ukraine the new wave of fear and new inner pressure for people. Let us see some attitudes of post-totalitarian persons.

PERSON and POWER. This is one of the important soviet psychological constructs.

   Kyiv International   Humanitarian Center   "ROZRADA" has  three scientific programs for psychological investigations of the families that reflect three directions of family development that we picked out above.

I. The family national identity development research. In 1996 we did the investigation of the Kyiv city people’s attitudes to Ukrainian language and culture. The objective of this investigation was to study how the young families of Ukrainian  capital  city  choose the language  for  their  children  education,  direction  of  national identity development  of  their  children  in  the  condition  of  the development of Ukraine as a New Independent State.

We used methods of people mental characteristics cross-cultural analysis,  method  of  people  questionaring about their attitudes to Ukrainian language and culture, method of Ukrainian newspapers texts content analysis.  Subjects of  questionaring  were  420  parents  who had 10 years children whose studied in 3 different types of school:  Russian school, Ukrainian school  and  school  that  changed the language of education from Russian to Ukrainian.

In addition to results of our analysis of post-communist persons psychological constructs that  we  discussed  above  we  received the specific psycholuinguistics  family  constructs. Across the native language, tales, songs, customs, ethic norms parents have the influence on their children, transmit  them a social relay-race - a base for development of society's psychological  space.  The well-known Russian   specialist in psychosemantics V.Petrenko  writes: "Subject  appropriates  in  one or another degree the general cultural mental space as a totality of public consciousness meanings,  images,  symbols  that acquire one or another personal sense. This personal sense is the base of the subject's  attitude to  this reality and  determines  the  use of a given  mental space as a historical metaphor for the categotization of the next epochs."(28).

In psycho historical context many scientists (W. Gumboldt, J.Bruner, D.Slobin, J.  Miller,  J.Piaget,  L.Vygotsky) showed the importance of psycho linguistics base  of  human  development and the family role in the formation of personality mental space.

In Ukrainian  history the psycho luinguistics space was a constant area of the struggles for human  souls  and  as  consequence  for  the Ukraine fortune as a whole.

Ukrainian people historically  had  the  language  and  cultural pressure from its neighbors, especially from Russia (East Ukraine) and Poland ( West Ukraine ). It was the steady movement for the assimilation of Ukrainians.   Partially we   discussed   this   phenomena above.  As psycho linguistics issue of these processes now there is a complicated language situation in Ukraine ,  quite different in West and East Ukraine and capital city Kyiv.  Before "perestroika" Kyiv really  was  Russian language city. Now after 5 years of Ukrainian independency as we could see from results of our questionaring the situation is changing. There is a process  of a transition not only of Ukrainian language using but of people feelings of their national identity. 67.8% of our subjects( Kyiv citizens) attribute their selves as Ukrainians, 6.9% attribute their selves as Russians, and 18.33% attribute their selves at the same time as Ukrainians and Russians.

It is known that in Soviet time people had in their passports the special point number 5 - nationality. There each adult person had the state definition of his(her) national identity - Russian, Ukrainian, new... Nobody asked people about their feeling of national identity. The main was so named "Anketa" - questionnaire about person's origin, lineage, nationality, education, etc. Point number 5. There were a great difference of education and career possibility for people with different data in points number 5. So in our questionnaire we had two questions: 1)what nationality You have in Your passport? 2) how You feel about Your nationality? It is interesting that 31% of Kyiv citizens who have in their passports Russian nationality feel that they are Ukrainians, and 39.1% feel themselves in the same time as Russians and Ukrainians.

It was important to analyze the subjects' answers about the necessity of Ukrainian language and culture knowledge and about a possibility of its use in the different spheres of social life. 61% of subjects believe that they have the whole knowledge of Ukrainian language, religious and folk customs, but only 55% believe that it is necessary to know them. Concerning their children 89% of subjects believe that it is necessary for children to know state Ukrainian language. It is interesting that 94.5% of our subjects who are the parents of two types of Ukrainian school children believe in this necessity, and the same  position have 73.5% of subjects who are parents of Russian school children.

There are some troubles in the process of the national identity development of Ukrainian new generation: 1) the absence of Ukrainian language environment inside many families; 2) the objective economic difficulties (lack of money for theatre tickets, for buying Ukrainian books, etc); 3) the absence of strong optimistic ideology of national renaissance inside society. We studied 109 texts from newspapers by method of content analysis. We searched these texts from 5 newspapers that are most popular and well known as national language and culture renaissance oriented. We were very surprised that a quantity of such publications at the end of 1995 - in the beginning of 1996 was rather small. 18.3% of such publications discussed the problems of education system, 18.3% discussed the problems of language legislation, but only 8.2% publications discussed the use of language for people communications and 3.7% discussed the Ukrainian culture problems. In geopolitical context of the most publications we received the data: 55% publications interested Ukraine as whole, 17.4% interested the situation in Kyiv city, 6.4% -the situation in East Ukraine and 6.4% - the situation in Creamia. 

Unfortunately the most publications were written in the traditional totalitarian traditions - author can talk over the problem but his opponent has not such possibility. Values dialogue we could see only in 30.5% of cases.  As usual for post-soviet mass media there are many general proposals(46.8%), indications  about the directions of movement(25.3%) but only 11.4% concrete proposals and 10.1% materials about realizations of concrete projects. There are also many publications with negative emotional accents.

So our results showed that there is a crisis psychological situation in mental space of Ukrainian family. On the one hand there is the psychological readiness to participate in the process of national development, on the other hand there is absence of intellectual, economic and emotional support of this process on the level of family and each person.

II. The Chernobyl disaster influence for Ukrainian family life. I remember the evening of 26 April 1986. There was a party of our friends.  Our friend, scientist invited me and my husband to his kitchen and told us very alarmely: "I received a secret information about some accident in Chernobyl nuclear station. I understood that it was something serious but I don't know any details". It was beginning of our life with Chernobyl disaster.

The next four days were very strain for us. It was very complicated task for us - to find in the soviet information space so important for family surviving information. Kyiv city was full from rumors - about explosion, a danger of radiation, a necessity of windows closing, using of caps... People believed to mass media but mass media didn't give people any information. I remember our waiting of the 1st May demonstration. It was some psychological test. We desired to know if this demonstration will take place, if a general secretary of the Ukrainian Communist will be in the cap in this demonstration. It could be some sign for us about real danger for us and our children.

 

I remember how there were the rumors about necessity to use an iodine in Kyiv at the beginning of May. People were going to pharmacies. Really there was the  iodine in the pharmacies, and there were some small white papers on the glasses with the information about iodine prophylaxis written someone by hand. Someone could find this piece of paper, someone not.  After 2-3 days some people who could not read this fantastic instructions got into hospitals. The iodine disappeared from pharmacies, the iodine prophylaxis was finished.

 I remember a general family shock that time. People understood that their  children are in a big danger. It is necessary to save children but how? 70 years it was known that the Communist Party and the Government have the whole responsibility for human safety and surviving. People had a hopeness for Power Conscience. This time people began to loose this hopeness. They began to be active. People began to move children from Kyiv and from other close to Chernobyl station places. It was about 2-3 May. It was their own decision. It was silent protest. People helped one another. You could see one woman with 5-6 children, her own and relative's and friend's. People moved to all directions of Soviet Union , they moved to relatives and friends saving children from radiation.

 The most hard situation had evacuated families. Immediately families lost all, and the main they lost their and children health.

It was the beginning of a long path of Ukrainian families to understanding their own responsibility for the happiness and safety of their families, to understanding that we are not victims, we are survivors. Nobody helped people to receive the information not only about the environment situation but also about the situation with food. Nobody gave families any help in their surviving movement. It was a hard work to find such information. Years and years passed before we began to receive some information in mass media. Even now after 11 years after Chernobyl disaster ordinary family has not enough information about strategy and tactics of our surviving. Families received a big post-disaster deep psychological trauma.

At June 1991 I and American psychologist professor Janae Weinhold had the first meeting with families evacuated from Pripyat - Chernobyl station workers city. It was a time of 5th anniversary of Chernobyl disaster. It was the place of a compact living of evacuated families, a big building with more than 500 apartments. There were women, children and men. Their faces were very strain. They told that they lost any hopeness. They, especially women had the strong feelings that nobody have  any  interest  to their problems, nobody helps them to treat and  to render more healthy their children. As usual for soviet people they hoped for Power Conscience and had any ideas about the possibilities of solving their own problems by their selves. It was the demonstration of new post soviet and post Chernobyl family crisis. People had not enough information not only about the consequences of Chernobyl disaster but also about real situation "Here and now". They had at the same time a strong feeling of fear for the life and state of health of their children, the willing to safe children but any knowledge about their own moving for surviving. They were very angry for Power, they waited, waited... The socio-political situation changed, they have some rights in new more democratic society but they didn't have new psychological constructs inside their consciousness.

It was a good time for meeting of these people with American psychologist. Professor Weinhold worked with them very hard. She explained them that they can solve their problems by their selves, can be responsible for their own children and their families surviving. It is necessary to feel their selves not victims but survivors! It was the session of real psychological support. It was very new for people. They were very attentive. It was so exciting to hear such simple but so important things!

 

We didn't see these people for only three months. September 1991. Janae  Weinhold came to Kyiv after August "Putch". She had some medicines for Chernobyl children. New meeting with the same families. It was so impressive to see new faces of these women! For only three months they organized a women NGO  for support family surviving in the community, they had some effects of this society activity: the opening of community polyclinic, the diagnostics of children state of health, special products providing of nearest food store, etc. It was the quick result of psychological support. people were ready to move but needed some psychological impulse. It was beginning of our long path to new life with these families.

We established International Humanitarian Center for rehabilitation of  Chernobyl survivors "ROZRADA". We felt ourselves as the members of humanitarian psychological international team for supporting families surviving. At the same time D-r Patricia Cox, psychotherapist from Indianapolis (Indiana, USA) who were in Kyiv in historical Chernobyl time - 30 April - 2 May 1986 decided to help Chernobyl people to survive. It was created the idea that Chernobyl families will write the letters about their life, feelings and problems. These letters will get Ukrainian scientists that will go to Colorado Springs at Fall of 1991. We will share these letters between American families, and the bridge of help and friendship will be established. We shared these letters between families in Colorado , and about 10 letters with the biggest problems we sent to Patricia Cox. It was the beginning of fantastic Family Program. Now after 6 years of "Ukrainian-American Family Network" activity we can speak about a new approach to family support in the situation of post trauma surviving plus situation of society transition in post-communist space. It was established real bridge between American and Ukrainian families. Now more then 100 American families regularly help more then 100 families in Ukraine . D-r Patricia Cox on the base of her own nursing and psychotherapy experience with a help of some doctors and hospital established a program of vitamins and general medicines family support plus psychological support. Families in Ukraine each three months these 6 years receive package with vitamins and medicines and some others things. Families wrote the letters. We know that these letters established a special psychological bridge - a part of a strong psychological support. D-r Patricia Cox come each year to Kyiv, meets families and work with them as psychotherapist. It is important to know what effect has this program, how it helps in the situation of inner people crisis that we discussed above.

 

From 1992 in our Center "ROZRADA" we studied the appraisement of psychological status of people with 8 parameters: anxiety, depression, general fatigue, chronic fatigue, physical break-down, irritability reflecting conditions of loading, weakened vitality, failing moral. We used R. Kosugo test(29). We tested  adult people from the same Chernobyl families that took part in the program of "Ukrainian-American Family Network" at 1992, 1993 and 1996. In 1992 we monitored the situation in different regions in Ukraine and in different stratas of society. We used the same methods and could compare these results with situation in Chernobyl families. We received the data that for Chernobyl people evacuated to Kyiv city: level of an anxiety was for 56% higher than for scientists, for 34% higher than for small enterprises workers and for 12% higher than for constructors; level of a general fatigue was for 33% higher than level of other groups; level of weakened vitality was for 67% higher than for scientists, for 56% higher than for small enterprisers, for 23% higher than for constructors; level of depression was for 62.5% higher than for scientists, for 50% higher than for small enterprisers and for 25% higher than for constructors.  

We used this method for monitoring of psychological state of adults members of families from "Ukrainian-American Family Network" at 1993 and 1996. We  interested how influence have this Program to inner state of people in the situation of the whole economic and social crisis in Ukraine . On Figure 2 it is possible to see thet really our Program helped people to survive and to stabilize their psychological state. They understand this and talked about the deep psychological support of Program with D-r Patricia Cox at may of 1997. At 1993 we monitored the situation between the same subjects' groups that we studied at 1992. And we could see this tendency. Evacuated people had a highest level of general fatigue but levels of anxiety, depression and weakened vitality were much closer to levels of others subjects' groups, almost the same. It was the first result of our Program I think.

So we could see that Chernobyl disaster was one of the crisis family influences and we could show that there is possibility to help people to be survivors versus victims.  

III."Families in the situation of Ukrainian society political and economical transitions" research.

III.1.The objective of our investigation was to study the psychological situation inside families in the period of society transition. We interested how an economical and socio-political crisis reflects on the main psychological constructs and peculiarities of families, women and children.

We analyzed the data of some sociological and demographic researches. In a book " Young families in Ukraine of 90th" authors write about deep family crisis(30). There is divorce for each third marriage. Between 1990 and 1994, the number of marriages per 1000 population declined from 9.3 to 7.7(31). The underestimation of family life and its role in the life of individual and the negligence of children's interests(children suffer most in divorce) is now evident among some groups, particularly the youth(31). The declining birth rate is reflected in the family structure of population. Among families with children aged less than 18 years 52% are one child  families. In urban areas the proportion is 55% and in rural are 44% (31). There is a conflict between totalitarian male approach to family life style and female willing of harmony relationships and partner family construct. Usual Ukrainian urban family is nuclear, men and women are professional working. As usual there are a few children in such family. The children upbringing is distributing between family and social institutions. Middle age of marriage is 20-23 years. An  absence of the necessary information and young generation education in family life style, partner relationships, peaceful conflict resolution has the direct reflection to family harmony and quantity of divorces.

One of the tendencies is the growth of women level of education in comparing with men's level. The quantity of families in which woman educational level is higher than man's level is growing. An absence of family information support, the growing of women educational and sometimes salary levels are the source of many role conflicts inside families. 20% subjects answered that they have role conflicts inside their families. About 70% of husbands try to avoid such woman's works as a apartment cleaning, a dishes cleaning, food preparing, laundering(30).  

There are many economical problems. Only 17% of young families from different regions of Ukraine answered that they have their own apartment or house(30). Young families have willing to live separately from parents but very closely for cooperation of different generations surviving. Now more than 50% of young families are living with parents  in the same apartment, 10% are living in hostels, 6% - rent apartments.

Economical state of young families as usual is very low. The most families don't have enough money even for food. If both, wife and husband are working they can feed only one child on middle level, two children with big troubles, and it is impossible to feed three children(30). As usual there is a help of parents to young family. It was usual from 70th. Young engineers, teachers, doctors had so small salaries that could not survive. And their parents regularly helped them.

III.2. We established the method battery for people psychological state monitoring(31):1)the Kosugo's test that we discussed above; 2) Spilberger's method of the anxiety level appraisement. This method was approached by J.Hanin for the circumstances of Former Soviet Union culture; 3)the method of stress level appraisement - "The scale of situational fear and emotion"; 4)the test "The psychological defense" as the method of restoration mechanisms diagnostic; 5)a projective test "Unfinished phrases".

Subjects: scientists, workers, businessmen from West and East Ukraine and from Kyiv city. In the whole we tested 200 subjects (six groups of adults, 120 women and 80 men). We also tested two groups of subjects who suffered from Chernobyl disaster(100 adults from families evacuated from Chernobyl zone and 40 people who still live in the region with high level of radiation).

Using test for estimation of 8 psychological state factors (anxiety,  depression, chronic fatigue, etc.) we received the following results. All groups have been questioned in Kyiv ( 90 miles from Chernobyl station) showed the high level of chronic fatigue at 1992 (Figure 3). We guess of such a high fatigue degree (in comparison to residents of West and East Ukraine) are connected not only with effects of Chernobyl disaster, but with general unhealthy ecological situation in Kyiv.

Residents of West Ukraine (Uzgorod and Ivano-Frankovsk cities) showed more

high level of anxiety (fif.3). It is not difficult to notice (Fig.3) by

the indicators "weakened vitality", "general fatigue", "irritability reflecting

conditions of living", "failing moral" in the different groups of Ukraine

population have been received generally different results. The most

unfavorable were groups evacuated from Chernobyl zone and especially group

of persons living in a zone of high level of radiation.  

Investigation of the personal and situational anxiety (by Spilberger method)

showed the middle points of situational anxiety of the different groups of

Ukrainian population. As for personal anxiety the indicators have been fixed more than the limit (see table 1).

In the investigation by method "Unfinished phrases" we used the following indicators: "attitude to past", "attitude to future", "the most important event in my life", "attitude to self". The results are: 20% of scientists imagine their future as a peaceful, 30% as a vague and indeterminate, 26% as a hard. The past is imagined more interesting than the present time - 20%; normal, satisfactorily - 26%; as a good and happy - 13%; 41% could not answer.

For the new generation of businessmen the future seems as a favorable - 21%; as a dark and hard - 42%; as a vague - 35%; could not answer - 2%. Constructors imagine the future in a dark colors - 55%, could not answer - 45%. Past seems as a bad and mistaken - 30% of workers. Others could not answer. Office workers of West Ukraine see a future as a light and wonderful - 58%; as a dark - 6%; as a vague - 29%; could not answer - 7%.

In accordance with method "Psychological defense" we received results showing the unsatisfied level of psychological protection of population. We have fixed the tendencies to excepting conflict situations in subjects' mentality, using protection mechanisms like refusal of negative effects, regression.

So it is clear that in the situation of society transition, big ecological disaster and economical crisis adults in Ukraine have the high level of anxiety, depression, chronic fatigue, cannot see their future as  happy and stable. How all of this reflects to family life, especially to children feelings? We studied the psychological status of different age children. III.3. We remember that in post-soviet family very often the child isn't a subject of social interaction, but an object of manipulation, that the parents often try to realize their inferiority complex on their attitude to children, that future of children is very important for parents not only in usual context but also because it is base of stability of parents life in old age. Unstable life of adults reflects directly to life style and quality of children. It is necessary to study the psychological state of children in family in the time of society transition. We study last years (from 1992 to present) psychological status of different age children in Kyiv city. Psychologists of International Humanitarian Center "ROZRADA" are working in different schools and are doing psychological diagnostics of children. From 1994 to present we tested about 500 children of 5-7 years. In 1995-1996 we studied about 400 teenagers. We established a battery of tests for measure level of anxiety, self-estimation, conflict expressness degree, models of behavior in conflict situation, drawing tests, Rene Gille's test. We received the following results for children of different age: low level of safety feeling; high level of anxiety; high level of the difficulties in the communication; high level of conflictness; but low level of the depression; low level of feelings that people  are the enemies. As for Rene Gille's test we received the following results for children 6-7 years: most love to the mother(44%0; most love to the father for boys - 35%, for girls - 27%, most love to the grandparents for girls - 14%, for boys - 7%;  an inclination to the communication with friends for boys - 63%; for girls - 33%; a separation for girls - 27%, for boys - 5%; social adequacy for boys - 50%, for girls - 70%. Inna Didkovskaia, psychologist of "ROZRADA" Center suggested to 40 teenagers to write the letters to parents or friends with love and positive feelings. It was 13 February and she proposed to write these letters because tomorrow it will be Valentine's day. It was very  new for children. They had a shock. It was so easy for them to say or write something rude. Unfortunately in soviet time it was unusual inside families to speak about love, unusual for mother to tell child how she loves him(her). Usual is the situation that there are some strong model of good boy or good girl and child must untrue to this model. How difficult for them was this task! How difficult was to find words about positive feelings. Now the situation is more strain. Parents have a high level of anxiety, have unstable economic and social situation. There are new problems inside families: an absence not only time for children bur also emotional resources. We could see the reflection of this phenomena in results of drawing test. Many children when they drawled their family could not find the place for their selves (see Figure 4 and 5). In the whole there are many family problems in post-soviet Ukraine. There are many democratic traditions in psychohistory of Ukrainian family. It is important now to help people to use these traditions for moving to democratic society and happy life for all families.

 REFERENCES  

1. Ukraine Human Development Report 1995, UNDP,-Kyiv,.

2. Each year the Ukrainian Population Decreases.-“Den” newspaper, January 10, 1997.

3. Ponomarjov A.( 1993) Family and family ceremonies, in “Culture and  mode of life of Ukrainian population (Ed. by V. Naulko).-Kyiv,1993,pp. 175-202.

4. Rancour-Laferrier Daniel (1995) “The slave soul  of Russia. New York: New York University, 1993.

5. Chaadaev Peter (1989) The articles and the letters.1989.- Moscow.- Pp 41-43 .

6. Bulgakov S.N.( 1991). On the God’s banquet.- Vehi. From the Depth. 1991.- Moscow. Pp. 320-321.

7. Andrew Cowley(1994). Ukraine. The birth and possible death of a country. The Economist . May 7th, 1994.

8. Geller M. (1994). “The machine and the screws” “MIK”, Moscow.-1994.

9. The small Soviet encyclopedia. (1930). Volume 7, Art. “Family legislation”.

10. Leon Trotsky, Cit. for  M. Geller (1994).

11. A. Zalkind( 1924). The Revolution and the Youth, In “Rodnick”. 1989, Vol.10, pp. 63-65.

12. Geoffrey Hosking(1994).  A history of the Soviet Union 1917—1991, “Vagrius”. Moscow , 1994.

13. Wilhelm Reich (1997). The mass psychology of fascism. A Condor Book Souveneir Press (Educational) and Academic LID. Translated into Russian. University book. S.-Petesburg.-1997.

14. Euripid (1950). Medea. Greece Tragedy. State publishing house. Moscow.-1950.

15. Natalya Baranskaya (1974) “A Week Like Any Other”. The Massachusetts Review, Autumn 1974.

16. Tramine du Plessix Gray (1990). Soviet Women. Walking the Tightrope. Double day. N.Y. .213 p.

17. Leonid Bejin. (1992). The Mothers’ power. Nezavisimaya Gazeta. 12.23.1992.

18. Valentina Bondarovskaia, Katerina Babenko (1996). Psychological Models of Personality in Post-totalitarian  Society. Hungarian Folk High School Society. Budapest.- 1996.

19. Golovaha E.I, Bekeshina I.E. and Nebojenko U.S. (1992). The Democratization of the society and the  development of the personality: from  Totalitarism to Democracy, Naukova Dumka : Kyiv, Ukraine.- 1992.- p. 125.

20. Julii Shreider (1990). Human reflexion and two ethik systems of consciousness”. Questions of Pholisohpy. 1990. N 7, Moscow , pp.32-41.

21.  Vladimir Lefebvre (1990)     A Comparative analyses of Western and Soviet ethical systems. Boston/London. D.Redial Publishing Company.-188 p.

22. Bondarovskaia V., L.Homenko, (1979). The experience of  psychological investigations results using for artificial intelligence systems improvement//Cybernetics.- 1979, N.3.

23. Bondarovskaia V., L. Bogush, I.Kirichenko (1986). The development of planning actions system on the base of problem solving processes psychological investigations.- Cybernetics.- 1986.-N.3.

24. Bruner J.S., Goodnow J.J., Austin G.A. (1956). A study of thinking. - N.Y. -1956.

25. Bourne L.E. (1963). Factors affecting Strategies used in problems of concept formation//Psychol. Reports - 1963.-N. 12.

26. WetherickN.E., (1967). Structure and content in concept attaintment effect of varying problem content. The British Journal of Psychology. - V.58. Part 3 and 4.-1967.

27. Marquis Astolf de Custine (1990) La Russie en 1839. Moscow .

28. Petrenko V.F. (1988) Psychosemantics of consience. Moscow University.-Moscow.- 1988. -207 p.

29. R.Kosugo and H. Fujii  (1987).  An index for rating cumulative  fatigue symptoms (CFSI) in different occupations//Science of Labour-1987.-Vol.63.N5.-pp.229-230.

30. Young families in Ukraine of 90th (1996).- Kyiv.- 1996.

31. Childhood and Motherhood in Ukraine . Challenges of transition. A situational Analysis (1996), UNICEF. UNDP.-1996.- 123 p.

32. Bondartovskaia V., Vosianova H., Valovskaya O., Verhovluk N. (1993). Assesment of the psychological states of a cross-section of individuals in Ukraine during social and political transitions. In Abstracts of III European Congress of Psychology. July 4-9, 1993 Tampere , Finland . P.171.

33. Bondarovskaia V., Vosianova H., Nikonova I.. (1995). Psychological diagnosis of children in a post-communist society. In “Abstracts of IV European Congress of Psychology”. Athenes 2-7, July 1995. P.552.

34. Vosianova H., (1995). Relations in the family and their peculiarities as a source of teenager’s conflicts in a post-totalitarian  society. - Ibid.-p.553

35. Didkovskaia I. , (1995), Causes of the solutions for families provoked inner conflicts. Ibid.-p.553.

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PERSON IN THE FAMILY  

There was the struggle against sexuality with the help of the absence of the information on sexual relations, contraceptives, etc.

            Marriage in a sexual context became a secret activity with constant fear of pregnancy.

            It was created a new Soviet moral:

·       «Free love» was announced as a result of bourgeous influence;

·       The freedom of divorces was limited.  

ATTITUDES TO CHILDREN

·       The child isn’t a subject of social interaction but an object of the manipulation;

·       Child is an Evil bearer;

·       Child’s individuality threats his/her future. So, it is necessary to destroy the individuality;

·       The parents try to realize their intferiority complex on their attitude to children.

 ----------

 NEW IDEOLOGY FOR FAMILY AND CHILDREN UPBRINGING   1917-1934

                                               «The family would die together
                  
                                         with private property and state»

                                              
Small Soviet Encyclopedia
 

·       the conception of religious marriage was destroyed;  

·       it was created the ideology of the state collective upbringing of children as enthusiasts-informers;  

·       the direct dependency of life success from person’s lineage (a special sourse of the family conflicts);  

·       the communist’s propaganda support of the cases of family treachery(the communist’ values were more important that family values);  

·       inspection of Christian ethic: «Revere the Father»:

      - to revere only whose father who believes in revolution and proletarian ideas;

        - the other fathers need to be reeducated by their children;

        - the interests of the revolutionnary class are more important then the father’s happiness;

       - the choice of the sexual partner depends on class usefulness.

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Destiny of man in independent Ukraine or why Ukraine has a lack of leaders: psycho-historical and cross-cultural analysis  

Valentina M. Bondarovska, Ph.D. 
International Humanitarian Center “ROZRADA”
Kiev , Ukraine  
Email: valbond@rambler.ru
  
Tel. (38044) 289-7132
 
   Tel/fax (38044) 234-8368  

The current political and psychological crisis in Ukraine prompts one to reconsider who we are and where and how we are advancing. Why do we often recall such derogatory dictums about Ukrainians as “Why are we poor? Because we are stupid!” and “Why are we stupid? Because we are poor”? These dictums should be analysed from the viewpoint of their paralysing effect on Ukrainian people’s awareness.

But I will start with some positive things. My fellow psychologists, the American professors Barry and Janae Weinhold, regard Ukraine as a huge living laboratory. They can see systems developing very quickly here. Ukraine drew the Weinholds’ attention because they think it has lived through a long period of forced co-dependency as part of an empire. In their opinion, Ukraine shows more evidence of the struggle between totalitarianism and democracy than other countries.

During a lecture at Kyiv’s Institute of Sociology , Janae Weinhold emphasized that as a psychologist, she is well aware of the ongoing struggle in Ukraine between aspirations for real independence and co-dependency. In her view, this struggle between striving for independence and seeking co-dependency can be an example for the whole world and even have an impact on it. Precisely the way we are establishing a democratic society is going to contribute to stemming the worldwide tide of totalitarianism. The direction of Ukraine ’s movement reflects the direction of the movement of the entire world. So I will begin analysing Ukraine ’s political and psychological crisis on this optimistic note right now, when so many people are disillusioned and feel lost.

As an expert, citizen, and ordinary individual, I keep wondering why our people “are poor because they are stupid and stupid because they are poor.” I have been thinking about this for years, and now I would like to make a few generalizations and analyse everything. The crisis of our so-called elite prompted me to this.

I would like to stress that we do not have a state: we only have a government and the people. There is no political elite, there is only the so- called “new class.”

This term was introduced by the Yugoslav dissident Milovan Djilas. In the Soviet era, this new class was the Soviet party nomenklatura. Djilas gave a philosophical and political characterization of the society that was being constructed in the USSR and the Eastern European countries. He analysed the social structure and ideological superstructure that dominate in the philosophical, economic, and political planes of this concept, and the official theory and practice of public administration. He thus revealed the essence of the “new class” of socialism — the party-based bureaucratic apparat. In Djilas’s view, one of the most interesting phenomena of socialist and communist construction is that in formally proclaiming a classless society as the goal to be achieved, immediately after seizing power communists always and everywhere establish a class society in which there is only one privileged class — the “new class.” Since Djilas did not consider this a scholarly term, he used such synonyms as nomenklatura, ruling class, caste, etc. A new class can be classified as one that historically emerges as a monopolistically ruling group of people, which uses special privileges by exercising its governmental functions, formally exercises public (“state-run,” “people’s”) ownership of the means of production, determines the nature of social labour organization, and takes unauthorized possession of a sizable share of public wealth.

According to Djilas, the “practical utopia” of Lenin’s plan to quickly build a classless society naturally brought about Stalinism. In his opinion, the power of the “new class” is linked to the idea of achieving a radiant future and establishing a classless communist society.

In the past 18 years this new class, a Communist Party and Komsomol nomenklatura, has followed the path of mimicry and now exists in Ukraine ’s political life under new — national and patriotic — slogans. These people now hold top government posts or are members of parliament. Unfortunately, most of them demonstrate a low cultural and ethical level, as well as a lack of strategic and trans-systemic thinking, ideas about the development of our country, love for their homeland, or respect for ordinary people.

I have singled out four lines of thought to analyse the existing situation.

The first line is an analysis of the situation with the Ukrainian people’s leadership capital in the context of Ukraine ’s psychohistory.

The second line is an analysis of the role of culture in the formation of a human personality and the cultural paths of the Ukrainian people under imperial oppression; an imperial model of governing the culture of oppressed peoples.

The third line is an analysis of the way a colonial society’s top echelons establish goals, map strategies, and administer in conditions where they have no right to make decisions.

The fourth line is an analysis of Ukrainians’ psychological traits in the wake of almost 300 years of slavery and persecution of leaders.

         I will first consider the Ukrainian people’s leadership capital in the context of psychohistory, the current situation, and prospects.

Leadership capital includes:

  • the vision of a goal;
  • values;
  • wisdom;
  • the ability to communicate effectively;
  • courage;
  • the ability to arouse trust (according to Larry Stout).

There are also four principal features of a successful leader and political figure, which demonstrate his/her grandeur, as singled out by Thucydides, who analysed the personality of Pericles, the famous ruler of ancient Athens :

He is eloquent and can lead the crowd. The art of a politician lies in being able not only to make correct decisions, but also to convince the people that they are the right ones.

He is well-educated, wise, and farsighted. He can predict events and soberly assess their consequences.

He is an undeniable patriot — not because he always swears in the name of the people: the interests of his compatriots are inseparable from his own. He thinks only of his country’s interests, not his personal glory.

Finally, he is disinterested, incorruptibility being the best manifestation of sincerity.

When and how was Ukraine losing its leadership capital both on the national level and that of a district, city, town, village, and individual human being?

I will not shy away from saying that Ukrainian society suffers from a lack of leaders — statesmen and stateswomen who meet the above-mentioned criteria: they do not have leadership capital or traits that are indispensable to a successful politician; at best, they have only a small part of these qualities.

Let us look at Ukraine ’s psychohistory in the context of leadership capital and the traits of a successful political figure.

First of all, for a long period of time Ukraine was partitioned by different empires. Let us examine the period of our psychohistory when Ukraine was part of the Russian Empire.

Look at the history of the Battle of Poltava and the record of the prominent Ukrainian figure Ivan Mazepa. Unfortunately, Ukrainians are still locked into the image of Mazepa as a traitor, an old man who was in love with a young girl, and a person who was anathemized in Orthodox churches.

When you look at the recently published book Mazepiana, you are surprised to see Hugo and Byron’s poems dedicated to Mazepa, which still have not appeared in a Ukrainian translation.

The year 2009 marks the 300th anniversary of the Battle of Poltava. If we look back almost 300 years, we will see that Peter I and his descendants learned the lessons of the Battle of Poltava very well. I will emphasize that the government of tsarist Russia deliberately stamped out the leaders of enslaved Ukraine . Peter I began with the complete evacuation of the Kyiv Mohyla Academy : professors, even sick ones, and students. This was followed by the ban on publishing books in Ukrainian (1720).

Here is a quote from Zoia Khyzhniak’s book Kyiv Mohyla Academy (1988), which discusses the impact of the academy’s professors (I. Boretsky, K. Sakovych, P. Mohyla, L. Baranovych, I. Galiatovsky, F. Prokopovych) on the formation of the standard Ukrainian language: “They wrote many of their books in the Ukrainian literary language, thereby developing feelings of respect in students. Many spoke the Ukrainian folk language and were bridging the gap between bookish and everyday spoken Ukrainian.” So Peter I launched an attack first on Ukraine ’s intellectual leaders and then on national values and the national language. All this dealt a painful blow to a component of Ukraine ’s leadership capital: values.

There followed another 75 ukases against the Ukrainian language, including one by Joseph Stalin in 1947, which introduced a Russian - based Ukrainian orthography.

Today we hear a lot of lamentations over the Ukrainian language. But unfortunately, the general public still has no access to the results of a thorough analysis not just of the tragedy of the Ukrainian language but the true role of language in the formation of a personality, a nation, national self- identification, and national leaders. In terms of psychology, the onslaught on the Ukrainian language was for more than 300 years a deliberate action targeting the awareness of the Ukrainian people and their leaders, an attack on such components of leadership capital as wisdom, ability to communicate effectively, and courage.

In 1997, at the request of the Kyiv municipal authorities, experts from the ROZRADA International Humanitarian Centre conducted a study of the Kyiv population’s attitude to the Ukrainian language and culture. Here are some results of this survey.

According to V. F. Petrenko, a well-known expert on psycho semantics, “The general cultural space as an aggregate of meanings, figures, and symbols of public awareness is appropriated to a certain extent by the subject and, being reflected through its set of values and world outlook, assumes one personality-related sense or another, which sets the attitude of the subject to this reality and determines the usage of this mental space as an historical metaphor to categorize the next epochs.” Thus, we see that there is a direct link between learning the native language and the formation of an individual’s values.

Andrii Potebnia wrote that it is common knowledge in the 20th century that language is a way of creating ethical and esthetical ideals, and the multiplicity of languages in this context is no less important than in the context of cognition. Therefore, it is impossible to shape values and ethical ideas without developing the language.

Also interesting are the results of a study by the well-known psycholinguist Dan Slobin on the relationship between language and the cognitive development of an individual. Slobin points out that the 20th-century’s most eminent psychologists Jean Piaget and Jerome S. Bruner studied the sources of the influence of language on children’s intellectual development. Slobin concludes that language is an important component of an individual’s psychological nature.

Oddly enough, long before the 20th century the tsarist governments were well aware of the importance of depriving the Ukrainian people not only of their language but also of respect for this language and for themselves. So I think it is dangerous to cultivate an image of clueless khokhly, who butcher their language.

Painstaking efforts are still being made to instil in Ukrainians an inferiority complex and disrespect for their native country, language, and culture. The terms “Little Russia” and “New Russia” are an instrument of this psychological attack.

Thus, the first component of the anti-leadership imperial policy is an onslaught on the national language and the nation’s self-respect.

The second component is that the empire understood that there should be no leaders in Ukraine . The intention was to lure such people away to Moscow or St. Petersburg or to kill them. This process lasted for over 300 years, deportation of the Ukrainians and the Holodomor being the empire’s final “exploit.”

The empire always considered Ukraine to be very important. For example, I will again recall Vladimir Pozner’s TV program “Times,” which was about Russia ’s destiny, although it was in fact focused on Ukraine . As Lenin said, “there can be no great Russia without Ukraine ,” while Hitler said that he needed Ukraine so that Germany would never be hungry.

So, as far as the first line of the analysis is concerned, the past 300 years of Ukraine ’s history were not conducive to the formation of leaders at all levels of Ukrainian society.

The last and most terrible thing was World War Two. No other country lost as many people as Ukraine . Ukraine was totally occupied during the war and lost a staggering number of males. In 1945, after the Holodomor, the purges, dekulakization, and the war losses, Ukraine in fact became a territory where practically all the social strata that could have engendered leaders had been destroyed. This means there simply could be no leaders with an independent way of thinking.

Wisdom is an important component of leadership capital, but it cannot emerge during a famine or in conditions of all-pervading fear. In addition, the Soviet education system did its best to deprive students of strategic thinking, decision-making, and planning skills.

Another reason why the Ukrainian people lost their leadership capital was the loss of the greater part of the male population during World War Two.  Unfortunately last 18 years of Ukrainian history also is time of loosing men. If 10 years ago Ukraine had population:  54% of women and 48% of men. Nowadays  there are 62% of women and 38% of men in the population of Ukraine . 

It is commonly known that a person is formed within the family. It is the family above all that shapes human values and teaches one to trust people and win the trust of others. In this psycho historical context let us consider the formation of leaders in the post-war Ukrainian family.

After the war, women headed families. From the late 1930s the USSR was forming a totalitarian family pattern with tough rules, a rigid distribution of roles, and the absence of private life and personal opinion among certain family members, especially children. The woman had to assume the role of family head, a man and woman rolled into one. On the one hand, she was a totalitarian leader (not a leader in the literal sense of the word), while on the other, she was enslaved by having to clean the house, do the laundry, check her children’s homework, etc.  In the next 50 years the country was ruled by men who had been raised by this kind of totalitarian mother.

The well-known psychologist Alfred Adler showed that when a boy is brought up only by a woman, who makes all his decisions for him, e.g., where to study or whom to date, he would subconsciously develop a hatred for women. Then this man will transfer all his feelings of dissatisfaction with his mother to his wife.

At the same time, being raised in a totalitarian family does not promote leadership qualities in a person. How can you be courageous and wise if all decisions are imposed on you immediately and in a totalitarian manner? Therefore, the family not only could not contribute to the formation of leaders but formed a sexist Soviet and post- Soviet society. Women copied their mothers’ totalitarian models of behavior in the family and were unable to form themselves as leaders in their enslaved conditions: work/shopping/housework/raising children/sexual partnership. At the same time, men are still showing “the transference of their totalitarian mother complex” to other women and the rejection of women as society’s leaders.

As I said above, this is the first line of analysing why we have no leaders.

The following unfavorable factors hindered the formation of leadership capital and hence of leaders in Ukrainian society:

  • Ukraine ’s colonial status;
  • the attack on the national language;
  • the psychological attack on Ukrainians’ self-identity and self-respect;
  • the elimination of leaders;
  • the extermination of the active part of society;
  • the creation of favorable conditions for luring leaders away to the empire’s center by helping them raise their self-respect and improving their housing conditions;
  • the totalitarian pattern of the family (psychologically not typical of but imposed on Ukraine );
  • the system of education that was not conducive to the formation of cognitive, ethical, and personal qualities of a true leader.

In this context, let us go back to the leadership capital situation in present-day Ukraine . Let’s examine such components of leadership capital as vision of the goal, values, and wisdom.

My analysis of the psychological consequences of the Soviet totalitarian regime in the cognitive context shows that the Soviet system of education was aimed at developing tactical thinking, problem solving, and theorem proving. It was not intended to develop strategic thinking, trans system thinking, planning, projecting, goal setting, decision-making, etc.

In fact, neither wisdom nor the vision of a goal was not and still is not being developed. Unfortunately, communication abilities were not developed either because this requires the formation of certain skills by active teaching.

As for courage, the Soviet man’s all-embracing fear was not at all conducive to the development of courage as a leader’s trait. Recall what Pope John Paul II said: “Do not be afraid!”

We should also look at another factor. Ukraine is now introducing active methods of teaching; for example, training sessions where emphasis is put on emotional problems, communication skills, and conflict resolution. Regrettably, the problems of values, envisioning goals, and wisdom based on strategic and trans-systemic thinking are practically absent, whereas this is perhaps the most pressing problem in the formation of leadership capital in Ukraine.

Let us examine the traits that were promoted in ancient Greece and see whether there were conditions for the formation of such leaders in Ukraine .

What are the psycho historical causes of the lack of leaders in Ukraine ?

1. He is eloquent and knows how to lead the crowd. The art of a politician lies in being able not only to make a correct decision but also, or even to a higher degree, to convince the people that the decision is right.

It is about the art of oratory. Ancient Greece attached paramount importance to this art, and its achievements remain unsurpassed. Unfortunately, this art has not been taught across the board in the past 70 or 80 years. Take even the highest echelons of power: do you remember the Soviet Union ’s top-ranking officials, who always read their speeches from a sheet of paper? They would read their texts in a drawn-out, boring fashion. And how pleased the Soviet people were when a big boss chose to speak “without a paper” even for a short while!

Thus, we have always lacked experts in the art of oratory and still do. This can also include the ability of a leader to clearly express knowledge and information in a speech.

2. He is educated, wise, and farsighted, and capable of foreseeing things and soberly assessing their consequences.

A person’s traits and intellectual skills enable him/her to think strategically, project, plan, make decisions, and forecast.

As I stated above, since the empire did not need leaders, its education system was not conducive to the development of these intellectual skills. So the task of Ukraine ’s educational system is to develop this set of skills.

3. He is an unquestionable patriot, not because he always swears in the name of the people but because the interests of his compatriots are inalienable from his own. He only thinks of his country’s interests, not his personal glory.

Patriotism was totally devalued in the Soviet Union because the all-pervading deception nullified the love of an individual for the new Soviet country as the fatherland. As for love of Ukraine , that was simply a crime in the empire. I will never forget what was done to the famous Ukrainian poet Volodymyr Sosiura for his poem “Love Ukraine !” in the late 1940s.

On the other hand, the new class and the ordinary people were worlds apart in the Soviet era, as they are today, unfortunately. The new class still has its own houses, hospitals, health centres, etc. How could the members of this class know the truth about the lives of ordinary people?

Moreover, the members of the new class still claim that they are feeding the people without knowing how they really live. Suffice it to recall their hackneyed phrase “We must first keep the people well-fed and only then culture and all that stuff!”

4. Finally, he is disinterested, incorruptibility being the best manifestation of sincerity.

These are problems of morality, which have experienced the disastrously negative effects of imperial times.

Values were so debased and double standards were so customary that those deceptive values were replaced by others that were even more deceptive — power and money. Today we cannot speak about disinterestedness or incorruptibility of Ukraine ’s current leaders, although the best among them have some of these traits.

The second line of analysing the leadership capital situation in Ukraine requires considering the role of culture in the formation of a human personality and the paths of Ukrainian culture under imperial oppression. It is an imperial model of managing the culture of enslaved peoples.

The following are the features of an imperial state’s cultural policy:

·         eliminating areas of active thinking in conquered or annexed countries;

·         forcing the cultural figures of an enslaved people to serve the empire or destroying them;

·         applying psychological methods of influencing the awareness of the enslaved people in order to stifle their creative and civic energy;

·         developing an inferiority complex in the enslaved people;

·         creating a closed information space for the people on an artificial basis;

·         distorting the history of the enslaved nation;

·         concocting myths about the inferiority of the people’s language, culture, and mentality;

·         cultivating pseudo-folk myths that fuel the slavish mentality of the conquered nation.

So, within the second line of the analysis is the fate of culture. Today we are worried about culture. I am interested in pictorial art. What truly depresses me is the fact that many treasures of Ukrainian culture are in Moscow and St. Petersburg . So what’s the problem? The point is that the empire deliberately carted away cultural monuments not only from Ukraine but also, say, Central Asia .

There are areas of active thinking and zones of relaxation in peoples’ lives.

Areas of active thinking are grouped around universities, museums, etc. An area like this existed in Kyiv when the Kyiv Mohyla Academy was in its heyday. Suffice it to recall the famous intellectual contests between representatives of the Kyiv Cave Monastery and Kyiv Mohyla Academy . The evacuation of Kyiv Mohyla Academy by Peter I touched off the gradual decline of active thinking in Kyiv.

It was the empire’s policy to cart away cultural treasures of enslaved and annexed peoples. Vitkovych’s article on the renaissance in Central Asia, published in the journal Novyi mir when it was edited by Aleksandr Tvardovsky, showed that incalculably priceless treasures were shipped out of Central Asia .

It was also the empire’s strategy to force cultural figures to serve. If you don’t want to serve or cannot, you’ll go to a prison camp or disappear into oblivion, but if you serve, you’ll get a decent house, money, and honors.

On the one hand, culture was to serve the empire and, on the other, it was not supposed to exist in the provinces because museums and cultural centres form an area of active thinking.

Let me give you an example. A little girl from a family living in St. Petersburg family, who would grow up to be an eminent Russian psychologist, was taken to see the paintings in the Hermitage. For example, after she read about the labors of Hercules, she was brought there to see paintings of Hercules.

For me this was a lesson in how to shape awareness, the ability to think and to compare different arts in the mentality of prominent figures who are now becoming leaders and promoting knowledge.

Ukraine was losing all this. In fact, we have creations of culture without number. Fifty thousand exhibits vanished from the Khanenko Museum . The German army smuggled out the decorations from St. Michael’s Golden-Domed Cathedral. The prominent Ukrainian historian Serhii Kot studied various documents and found out that Germany had indeed returned them — but to Russia , not Ukraine .

We have lost the area of active thinking, on the one hand, through the loss of art works and the possibility of cultural development and, on the other, through the neutralization of cultural figures (the GULAG archipelago, execution, or failure to present one’s works to the public at large). In this way we lost our spiritual heritage, which is an indispensable source for improving the quality of the population’s top stratum. This is about values, ideals, and moral standards.

The third line is an analysis of the mores of the upper strata of a colonial society where it tries to set a goal, develop a strategy, and manage in conditions of being unable to make decisions.

An important point in the life of Ukraine and other conquered or annexed peoples was the complete absence of an opportunity to plan the life of their country and make their own decisions.

To be able to think strategically, one should know how to establish a goal, draw up goal-achievement plans, and make decisions on the tactics of implementing a strategy.

I have studied the psychology of creative work for many years, and I know that the main thing is to set a task and see the goal clearly. One must first see the problem and only then seek ways to solve it.

In the Soviet era, Ukraine was placed in a situation where there was the semblance of a government, not a government itself. We seemed to have ministries, but there were in fact no ministries because all decisions were made in Moscow and then simply handed down to Kyiv. For example, we had a foreign ministry but no embassies of our own. We did not address many problems: we just carried out what the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR demanded. We had a ministry of the economy called the State Planning Committee, but we did not have our own economy. Everything was located in Moscow . So we should also make allowances for having had no practice in establishing and fulfilling creative tasks and making decisions. In fact, the entire so-called governmental system of Ukraine was only good for fulfilling the central government’s decisions.

Ukraine found itself in a “zero-option” situation in 1991, with no practice of genuine administration, no structures of government, and no banking system!

Today we can see that the people in power do not even suspect that they must learn from and work with bona fide expert advisers. It is important to understand that there are no personalities today that can generate an idea that could rally the nation. It is obvious that our people are making better progress than the government. It is easy to see that there are already approaches that could beget leaders because it is far more difficult to kill a nation genetically than morally or psychologically.

Seventy five decrees against the Ukrainian language are also an element of the cultural defamation of a nation, so today we are not healing as fast as we would like to.

The fourth line is an analysis of the psychological traits of Ukrainians as a result of almost 300 years of slavery and persecution of their leaders.

Remember the article in The newspaper “Day” whose author discussed the victim mentality and listed the typical traits of a victim, as described by Randy Gage in his book Why Are We Stupid, Sick and Poor, and How to Become Wise, Healthy and Rich. As a practicing psychological consultant, I often come across victims of domestic violence, and I think the Gage list is very important for us post-Soviet people.

The psychological traits of a victim (according to Gage):

1. They can always persuade themselves that all the failures in their life occur through no fault of theirs.

Let us recall the way we always look for a guilty party: the one who broke a faucet in a shared apartment, the one who failed to establish order in the courtyard, a school, the city, etc.

2. They think that all their troubles stem only from external factors because this exempts them from personal responsibility.

Let us recall how we always look for foreign or domestic enemies, nature-related causes of our failures, or for such “enemies” as our boss or neighbour.

3. They receive a considerable part of attention, sympathy, and pity from those who surround them.

I feel bad. You should help me. I am so miserable that I can’t do anything, I am a loser. Leave me alone.

4. They interpret this attention, sympathy, and pity as love, which they desperately need but do not know how to obtain.

With their complex of being unloved, they readily interpret sympathy as love without taking an independent and self-affirming stand.

5. They use their past failures in their private lives as confirmation that they are incapable of emotional closeness with anyone.

This develops the complex of a loser who wastes life energy.

6. They refer to their past failures to justify the lack of attempts to achieve lofty goals and implement promising projects.

They lose courage. They do not act. They think that a passive stand is simply normal.

7. They view as the gospel truth the fact that they are “disgraceful sinners,” that they have no proper education or connections for achieving success.

The stigmatisation of the victim takes place. Any lofty idea and courage as part of the vision of a goal are out of the question.

8. They feel as though they are heroic “little men” who, in spite of everything, are battling evil forces.

The lonely figure of a stigmatized individual is not conducive either to one’s own rise or rallying people around a lofty goal.

9. They are aware of their spiritual grandeur, placing their life on the altar of humankind and thinking that they will be duly rewarded later in their lifetime.

The sacrificial quest of a lonely figure that is not blessed with wisdom and trust in people will not beget those who can lead people and will not create conditions for creative satisfaction.

10. They can eke out a literally unconscious existence, succumbing to their instincts, and simply allow life to take its course without thinking about anything.

This kind of life stance enables the existence of the individual that occupies the position of leader but is not a leader.

No matter what can be said in this connection, one thing is undeniable: all this impairs an individual’s inner growth and prevents him from living a true, joyful, and full-blooded life.

On the other hand, there are some rather positive phenomena in the Ukrainian people’s mentality. Here are a few notes on the national idea of Ukraine .

After reading Klara Gudzyk’s article in the newspaper “The Day” about Nikolai Leskov’s book The Jews in Russia, I took a look at this book. It turned out that Leskov wrote the book in 1883 in order to understand the complaints against Jews. But interestingly enough, a large portion of the book is devoted to the analysis of differences between Ukrainians and Russians.

Independently of Leskov I had come to embrace the same ideas. It is very interesting to recall how we wander from Kyiv to Moscow . As we reach the village of Khutir-Mykhailivsky , our image of a village house — white with decorated windows, interestingly designed, with marigolds blooming next to the house, and a small orchard — gives way to black houses without a single flower, and you understand that this is an entirely different mentality.

I came to the following conclusion. We often say that Ukraine has the world’s best black soil. God sent people not just the soil to live on. He also gave them a special ecological link with the Earth with which one must always be bound.

First: you have done something, and the earth responded to you. Look at the way our people grow all sorts of crops on our land. Wherever there are Ukrainians, be it in Siberia or Canada , they grow cucumbers, sorrel, and wonderful flowers even on a small plot of land. This is a manifestation of a special ecological link with the Earth. This link is typical of all those who have roots in this Earth — Ukrainians, Jews, Russians, Bulgarians, Moldovans, etc.

The second thing that is germane to the people who live here in Ukraine is a radiant perception of the world. This white house, these flowers, white clothes, embroidered towels are truly impressive. There is no way this is a fantasy: we were beaten on the head, but we embroider to our heart’s content.

Leskov writes that when you come to a Ukrainian marketplace, you are surprised at the way young women are dressed and the way the stalls are adorned. A radiant perception of the world means that Ukraine can show the whole world how one should live — in union with nature, poetically, beautifully, in the midst of the full cycle of events: work, singing songs, eating supper, rites, and beauty.

I have often visited the United States , where people are in a rush to get rich and make money. This is not what we should copy.

There is one trouble that Peter I visited upon us: the copycat policy. It is important to remember that we have things of our own. When he went to Holland and saw the way of life there — cleanliness, neatness, and high labor efficiency — he became excited and with great energy (this energy helped him oppress the Ukrainian people after the Battle of Poltava) he began to copy the European lifestyle. And from that moment the idea was genetically foisted on us that somewhere else — in Japan , the US , or the UK — people know how to live better.

But it is we ourselves who should decide how to live, because we are slow people, and all this hurry and speedy enrichment causes premature strokes, heart attacks, divorces, and nervous breakdowns. Why? Because we have a different philosophy of life. If we do not lose our spiritual principles and learn to value time and work more efficiently, understand our values, become wiser, and esteem those whom we already have — Lina Kostenko, Ivan Dziuba, Professor Serhii Krymsky, Yevhen Sverstiuk, and others — we will discover ourselves, and the world will see one more way of living a harmonious life.

Is it really worth launching a nationwide debate on whether the sense of life lies in crazy money so that we can sit on gold-plated toilet seats and vacation in the Canary Islands , or in having a nice family, playing with our children, and being able to realize our creative potential?

Lev Gumilev once said that our steppes are the most unknown page of European history, that there is no information left about what used to be here. Incidentally, we are now seeing a real upsurge of information about Trypillia and other cultures that once existed on our land. This is a moment that we should seize.

History is giving us a chance. Our chance is to show the entire world a way of living, the sense of life, and a true culture of peace.

As a psychologist, I have always noted the extremely peaceful nature of our people. Ukraine has never conquered anyone, but it was conquered many times. It was surrounded by such bellicose peoples as the Turks, Russians, Lithuanians, and Poles. We never took anything from anyone. This is also what we can teach.

So I see a grave danger in the violence that is being foisted on us — not by America but by the people who want to cash in. I am talking about mass culture, violent magazines for teenagers, violent films on TV, and violent whodunits that are so easy to read. All this is bringing things to Ukraine that are not germane to it, and this can lead to a serious social explosion because we are different.

When you walk down the street and see 14- and 15-year-old girls clutching bottles of beer, you should be aware that this is a great threat to the very existence of our nation. So I would like to launch a debate on this menace. We can still be heeded; there are those who may support us. I have been sounding the alarm for a long time and must say this: dear compatriots! Wake up! Let’s get back to ourselves and start marching down our own splendid road.

 

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THE WOMEN”S FACE IN THE POST-SOVIET CONTEXT: THE CROSS-CULTURAL AND PSYCHOHISTORICAL ANALYSES  

Valentina M. Bondarovskaia,  
 
International   Humanitarian   Center "ROZRADA", Kyiv , Ukraine .    

Keywords: woman, family, psychological models, communist regime.                                                   

Introduction.  The new independent countries of the Former Soviet  Union  are  going through the  complicated  period  of  transition  to  new values,  new economy system, new socio-political system. Many of the habital ideas and conceptions of human relations,   self-esteem,   person's responsibility for him(her)self,  family,  children are destroing  and changing. The  relationships  between  people  are  changing  in their workplaces.  On the one hand, different people's  attitudes  (attitudes to Power, Law, women’s role, etc.) are changing; on the other hand, attitude women to themselves, family, children is changing, too. All of these processes reflect the deep economic, ecological( Chernobyl disaster),  socio-political  crises of society.

              The objective of our investigation was to study the psychological situation with women’s role in society,  family at the period of transition of society and the influence of the communist  regime  to  the  women’s selfesteem, responsibility for  family, participation in political life and activity of NGOs  in different post-communist countries.

Many experts who analysed the post-soviet period of human being identified several common psychological constructs: collective thinking,  maximalism and dependency on authorities.  We consider that it is important not only to investigate and grasp the ethics of totalitarian regimes, but also to remember that the psychological model of  «Soviet» people remain today in post-totalitarian societies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

Following this aim, we conducted a psychologically and psychohistorically-focused research project to grasp the nature of the current psychological constructs and to assess the social and psychological consequences of the soviet totalitarian regime on people, especially on women behavior models.

Now in the time of the postsoviet society transformation it is important to understand completely the inner psychological people constructs, the psychological models of postsoviet human behavior, the differences between people constructs in democratic and totalitarian societies.

Methods.  We   used   methods   of    the    cross-cultural   and   psychohistorical analysis to   determine how economical and socio-political crises reflects on the main  psychological  constructs and peculiarities  of women,  children, families.

For representation of our results we used the conception of the psychological model. The psychological models in our context are the cognitive, emotional and ethic-religious constructs that determine the person's behavior and appear as the result of the influence of the family, education and social peculiarities on the person, especially women. Here we can also see the system of the person's attitudes - to him/herself, to women’s role in the society life on the all levels, to family, to child, to power, to work, etc. We also studied the general values and other psychological consequences of the Stalin's concept that the person was the small part of the big social machine, that women have the specific role in the society life, have equal role in the implementation of all hard works, but have any real role in the political and social life.

In our cross-cultural and psychohistorical analysis we used the next main directions of the psychological modeling:

- cognitive;

- emotional;

- ethic-religious;

- pattern proper (the system of attitudes and values).

In the context of cognitive level of psychological modeling we consider three sublevels of the analysis:

- psychohistorical level;

- informational level;

-         cognitive proper level.

Results. On psychohistorical sublevel we analysed the influence of past experience of the society on the woman's psychological constructs,  models of her behavior and models of men’s behavior.  We also considered the social models of the past, present and future, psychosocial models of the woman as individual, as member of  family and small groups, as member of society.

On the informational sublevel we analyzed the main directions of the soviet totalitarian information space functioning in the context of women’s role. We analyzed psychologically the society’s information space in the different periods of communist regime and the information space of the individual, family, small groups. We did the cross-cultural analysis of the designed society information space and the communist and post-communist societies’ information spaces. We also considered the information base of person's(woman and man) and her family inner exile in communist society.

Proper cognitive sublevel is important. Stalin's paradigm that person is only the small part of the big machine, that the family needs to be the Puritan unit of the society support created the special approach to the communist education system and the system of family upbringing. For example, in these systems no attention was paid to the developing of the person's strategic thinking. Totalitarian communist society as we supposed had the direct influence on such human cognitive structures as strategic and tactical thinking, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, planning and judgement.

On the emotional level, we considered three directions: person's needs, feelings and psychical states. We supposed that communist regime had the strong pressure on the development of human needs and feelings especially, women’s needs. . We were also interested in the correlation and domination of the different woman’s feelings on the psychical state of people and the society as the whole.

On the ethic-religious level of psychological modeling, we considered two sublevels: spiritual and comparative. The conceptions of God, life and death, Good and Evil were the subjects of the communist propaganda. It is important to understand how women, families  adopted communist ethic system, what models of behavior created the communist slogans such as "The goal justify the means" or "We have to obtain this result by any means".

On the level of the proper modeling of pattern, we consider the main woman’s attitudes that define her belief and behavior. We consider three parts of these attitudes: attitudes of woman to Life and Death, to her own life and state of health, to her safety; some social attitudes: to Power(governmental structures), to Law, to Family, to Work; attitudes to surviving conceptions and skills (I am a victim or I am a survivor).

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VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN UKRAINE : PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONTEXT  

Valentina M. Bondarovskaia 
International Humanitarian Center “ROZRADA”  
Kiev
, Ukraine  
Email
bond@rozrada.kiev.ua

Tel. (38044)289-7132     Tel/fax (38044)234-8368

Director of the  International Humanitarian Center “ROZRADA”, Kyiv , Ukraine ,Vice-president of Ukrainian Association of Professional Psychologists. Council Member of All-Ukrainian Ergonomics Association.  Senior Scientific Researcher, Supreme Certificate  Comission, Moscow , USSR . Diploma. Ph.D. Moscow State University . Specialization:  General Psychology. Diploma.  Psychology. Post-Graduate Studies, Institute of  Psychology, Kiev , Ukraine . Certificate.   Coordinator of international projects: projects of International year of the  Family, UNIFEM, UNICEF, Ukrainian-Canadian gender fund, Global fund for women. Author more then 200 scientific publications, participant  of European Psychological  Congresses.  Expert of  Ukrainian Parliament – gender equality and prevention of violence against  Women questions.

 Abstract.

Today it is important to understand how totalitarian regime have effected people who lived in Former Soviet Union and East European countries, how these people construct their world differently from citizens in the West as they simultaneously seek to create the new psychological models.

Women have the specific social and psychological problems in post-totalitarian society in the context of gender sensitivity and equality, the violence against women.

The objective of our research and practical work was to study the psychological behavior models of domestic violence victims and violators in Ukrainian post-totalitarian society, to develop the technologies of coping domestic violence by psychological consulting, training’s  and supporting women – victims of violence in social and legal context.

We used the methods of cross-cultural –psycho-historical analysis of family traditions in Ukraine . We consulted more then 150 women – victims of domestic violence. We created the training program “Job Club” for helping women to move to their economic independence. We realized 10 training programs for 120 women.

We created the system of women and men psychological behavior models in totalitarian post-soviet families; we analyzed the typical situations of domestic violence inside families, social, legal issues. We published over 30 popular notes, brochures and booklets for people about human rights, prevention and coping of domestic violence.

 

Introduction. 

                       Ukraine , the new independent country of the Former Soviet Union, is going through  the complicated period of transition to new values, new economy system, new social-political system. Many of the habitual ideas and conceptions  of  human relations, of  self-esteem, of the responsibility for him(her)self, family, children are destroying or changing. The relationships between people are changing in their workplaces. The people attitudes to power, law, property, from one side, and to their selves, death, gender equality, family, children are changing, from other side. All of these processes are reflecting the deep economic, ecological ( Chernobyl disaster), social-political and psychological crisises of the society.

Today it is important to understand how totalitarian regime have effected people who lived in Former Soviet Union and East European countries, how these people construct their world differently from citizens in the West as they simultaneously seek to create the new psychological models.

Women have the specific social and psychological problems in post-totalitarian society in the context of gender sensitivity and equality, the violence against women.

The problem of violence against women is a new one for the post-communist societies. Any accidents inside the families were a secret. Stalin’s paradigm of a social health, absence of sex in the socialistic society, the intolerance of the Communist party toward the divorce, the violence model as a normal mechanism of social decision making were the background of the transformation of the human rights in the communist society.

It is important to study the psychological situation with violence against women in society at the period of transition, the influence of the communist  regime  to  the  women’s self-esteem, the situation of woman’s responsibility for the  family life, to her position of violence victim, participation in political life, etc.

       Many experts who analysed the post-soviet period of human being identified several common psychological constructs:

·         paternalism;

·         collective thinking;

·         maximalism and dependency on authorities;

·         gender unsensitivity;

·         violent consciousness.

  We consider that it is important not only to investigate and grasp the ethics of totalitarian regimes, but also to remember that the psychological model of  «Soviet» people remain today in post-totalitarian societies of Eastern Europe and New Independent countries of Former Soviet Union.

Domestic violence is a constant verbal, emotional, physical or sexual violence. It can often be denoted as intimidation, compulsion, beating.

All human problems are beginning and finishing inside family. The family is the background of the main human values conservation.

The Ukrainian family has its long and very specific psychohistory. The nuclear family have formed in Ukraine in XIX century. The young families usual had own house, the ownership of land. But in Ukraine parents never lost the help of children in their old age.  As usual one son lived with parents, on the Left bank of Dnipro river it was the youngest son, on the Right bank - the oldest.  If family had any sons this role played a daughter.  It  was  usual  for Ukrainians  to have agreements between parents and son (or daughter) about  conditions  of living the rest of parents days and inheritance of their property.

As the power character the Ukrainian family in XIX  century  was patriarchal. All family members were depended from the Head (the more often father) that managed the family property. Ukrainian legislation didn't support that only one person can order the family property. In the end of XIX century Ukrainian family moved to the process of the democratization and nuclearization of the family relationships. In the West bank of Dnipro river and on the South of Ukraine the family  property  were  divided  between the family members almost equally, not only between sons but also between daughters. On the East Bank of  Dnipro river the  situation  was  more  close to Lithuania family status - women had some rights for family property but with many terms and limitations(1).

Really women in Ukrainian families as in  comparison, for instance, with Russian families, had more equal rights and status.  For example, woman (wife, daughter) as equal family member had the rights for family property, for dowry, etc. The relationships in Ukrainian families as usual were concordant.  Quit often woman could be the head of the family.

As the main reason for divorce the community considered only the impossibility to have children or serious sickness. So there were a very few divorces in Ukrainian families at the beginning of XX century- about 0.5 for 1,000 marriages (1). The social- economic relations were the base of the family solidity. "Economy is a background of the family"- it was known between people in Ukraine .

In Russia there was always been a gross inequality of the sexes inside families at the same time.

Traditionally Russian woman was the slave of her man. Among the peasantry a daughter was expected to be obedient to her father until he married her off, whereupon she was required to submit to the will of her husband. The husband became her "father" within the patriarchal peasant culture. Among the gentry the situation was not very different (2).

The gender equality was not usual for Russian family. It was normal for husband to beat wife or children. Among the Russian peasantry the father's abuse of the mother would often take place right in front of the children. Within the traditional peasant family the father was a harsh disciplinarian who had right to decide who they married, to determine where they would live, etc (2).

It is possible to imagine what pressure influence Russian Empire had to family traditions in Ukraine , but as it is known the family is the social system where the psycho-historical structures have the conditions for safety and surviving.

Ukrainian peasant family saved many traditions and in the beginning of 20th century, especially a tradition to respect Mother as a "Bereginia" (protection person) of a family house and traditions.

From the first moments of the soviet time bolsheviks considered the family as one of the main objects for attack. It was created new legislation about the civil marriage and divorce. It was created the new ideology for family and children upbringing. One of the bolsheviks' ideologist Peter Stuchka wrote that "the family is the form of the slavery"(3). In the "Small Soviet encyclopedia" it was written that very soon the family would die together with private property and State (4).

The deep influence to the family structure and the relationships between man and woman had the bolsheviks' approach to the personality from the position of his(her) social lineage.

If your lineage is proletarian (from poorest parts of the society) you have all social rights and can have the trust from state structures. If your lineage is bourgeois you are the potential enemy of the society and cannot have the equal rights with other members of society. The bourgeois lineage closed for person the doors to the universities and the possibility to do the career. Communist' propaganda supported all cases of family treachery. The famous Pavlik Morozov became the soviet national hero because he betrayed his father and gave to bolsheviks' structures the information about family store for the grain.

This approach raised the big conflicts inside families and the deep psychological issues for most people. It was the time of rousing of many new typical psychological models. The main of these models were the double moral and the compromise between the Good and Evil. It was usually to use such imperatives as: "The aim justify the tools" (Stalin), "If the enemy not gives in, he needs to be annihilated"(Maxim Gorky), "If someone fells the forest the slivers fly" (Stalin).

Fear and Lie became the general managers of human behavior. Parents were afraid to speak with their own children about their lineage. The social relay-race was interrupted.

The family as a social structure was destroyed. In 1934 there were 37 divorces per 100 marriages. 57,000 childbirth versus 154,000 abortions were registrated in Moscow hospitals. The level of birth rate was very low. Many orphans lived in special child houses and right on the streets (5). It was the issue not only of family destroying politics but also the issue of the process of collectivization and mass repression’s, artificial famine.

It was created so named new moral. There were usual at 20-th years the immoral propagation’s and many discussions  about family, sexual freedom, the struggle with the old mode of life. Professor A. Zalkind in his book "The Revolution and the Youth" developed the theory of the special proletarian morals (6). He wrote: "The old morals are dead, are decomposed, are stagnated. The new state class is moving to the proscenium. He will develop his own special rules of the behavior, own ethic…".

On the first step of this moving against family Bolsheviks were oriented to Women (freedom from family slavery) and Youth, On the seconds step the main orientation was to Youth. Robert Konkvest considered that Stalin had the consciosous aim to destroy the family relationships (8). The hatred to class enemies, fear, lie and denunciation became the base of new moral. The system of state education formed new people who were the instruments of family destruction. One of the slogans of this time was: When we destroy family hearth we strike the last blow to the bourgeois system"(3).

This process of the family destruction was finished at the end of 20-th years- the beginning of 30-th. It was new era of Stalin's authoritarian regime.

Communist Party began to understand that it was time to change a family politics. Mass media began in 1934-35 the campaign for strengthening the family values. So named "free love" was announced as the result of bourgeois influence. It was created a new soviet morals more severe than Puritan morals of Victorian England. New laws had limited the freedom of divorces and abortions. It was created new totalitarian model of the family (3,5). We can agree with Erich Fromm and Wilhelm Reich that totalitarian state needs totalitarian family as a social institution. This thesis was very clear for Stalin and his surrounding. They organized the great campaign in order to spread totalitarian Puritan family model.

The absence of information on sexual relations plus the Puritan model of the family plus living the whole family in the only one room issued in sexual inhibition of the personality. "Sexual inhibition make up the base both for individual's family reserve and his self-conscious"(7).

Absence of necessary information about sexual relations, contraceptives, the existence of family Puritan moral as the main family model of society issued in the situation that a marriage in sexual context became as a some secret activity with constant fear of pregnancy. Girls as a rule got married having no idea about sexual relations but with the same feelings as had have women at the time of Euripid in Ancient Greece. "And now women that are going to the new life... it is necessary to guess at what conditions and with whom she will share the bed", told Medea in the famous tragedy of Euripid (8). Soviet women at Stalin's time had the same situation, in fact.

The gender equality that announced communist ideologists on the first stages of the Soviet society development was liquidated. There were a fantastic situation with women life in Soviet Union . Women did the most hard work in society, managed all problems inside family, did the whole house work and managed the upbringing of children but at the same time women had any influence on social life of the society.

A whole picture of ordinary soviet woman life was: "Food shortages; eternal queues; indifferent doctors hastily attending children who constantly get ill from sloppily run nursery schools; a dearth of the most basic household implements or services; passive husbands buried in TV or newspapers who never lift a finger to help out"(9).

In the psychological context in soviet families woman became the main figure. Many soviet families lost men at the time of Stalin's repression’s and at the time of World War II. It was formed new generation of women who needed to reach, to demand, to obtain something in order that their families would survive. It was formed a new psychological type of woman - powerful, decisive, forceful, supressful, dictatorial personality. There was a family head coping the totalitarian state dictator. It was fantastic situation: these women as usual loved the Main Man - State, believed Him and carried out His will(10).

It was formed soviet type of the family in the whole: mothers gave orders, suppressed, were capricious, lapsed into hysterics. Fathers kept silence (if the family had father). Children believed that it is true family model: mothers work very hard inside family and outside, solve all family problems, manage all family money and are the family dictators.

At the same time men possess all power in the society. There were no place for women on the top level of the power. It was established an antiwomen model of society. There were some  women in Soviet Parliament, in Government but really there were no women who made social, political or economical decisions.

Ukrainian families suffered from Soviet Power more than others. Ukraine not only lost about 6 millions people at the time of 1933 famine but lost the main psycho historical conditions of family life style and children upbringing. The next tragedy was the fascist occupation in 1941-1944. Ukraine lost millions and millions people, millions and millions men. After the World War II Stalin began new repression’s against the Ukrainians, against Jews, deported many people from West Ukraine .

In this context, we consider it is especially important not only to investigate and grasp the ethics of totalitarian regimes, but also to remember that the psychological model of "Soviet" people remain today in post-totalitarian societies of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Following this aim, we conducted a psychologically and psychohistorically-focused research project to grasp the nature of the current psychological constructs and to assess the social and psychological consequences of the soviet totalitarian regime on people. To identify these psychological constructs we observed the relationship of group people to a list of key factors, we also used methods of cross-cultural and psycho historical analysis of psychosocial situation in Former Soviet Union. For the representation of our results we used the conception of the psychological model. The psychological models in our context are the cognitive, emotional and ethic-religious constructs that determine the person's behavior and appear as the result of the family, education and social peculiarities influences on the person. Here we also can see the system of the person's attitudes - to him/herself, to family, to child, to violence, to power, to work, etc. We also studied the general values and other psychological consequences of the Stalin's concept that the person is the small part of the big social machine.

In the context of the violence against person, especially violence against women, we can see that in the area of personal responsibility, the "soviet" citizen was culturally trained in learned helplessness and dependency. The State oversaw the planning, organising and implementing of all facets of each individual's life. Some persons in the political hierarchy determined when and which apartment a person would receive, the metric allotment for each person (in Moscow it was 9 sq. meter/person while in Kyiv it was 13,5 sq. meters/person), the time and manner for receiving vacation leave and doctor and clinic to use.

The "soviet" citizen could be employed only at one organization. There was no choice for another profession and no opportunities to work more time in order to earn more money. This situation created a patronymic system that functioned like a family. Indeed, this system was designed to destroy the nuclear family  and replace it with a collective  "family". Consequently, people believed that it was the responsibility of someone else to solve the problems of each individual and each family, that creates a lack of response. What are the psychological consequences of the Soviet period of Ukraine ?

Results.

Let  us analyse the psychological models of post-soviet persons. Our primary goal was to identify the typical psychological constructs of people who lived under communist totalitarian regime in the Former Soviet Union(18).

During the period between 1986 and 1993, many outstanding intellectual and humanitarian citizens from Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and Western countries tried to understand the psychological model of "soviet" people. The Ukrainian sociologist E.Golovaha and his colleagues, for example, attempted to describe the characteristics of the common people during the time of the Russian Empire and the time of the October Revolution 1917(19). They identified several common psychological constructs: collective thinking, maximalism and dependency on authorities.

The investigations of Vladimir Lefebvre and Julii Shreider with subjects from Soviet Union and United States identified two different Ethic systems. They found a correlation between the ideology, morals and behavior on relationship between Good and Evil(20, 21). The most interesting part of the Lefebvre's approach was the finding the correlation between the "soviet" ethic system and self-destructive behavior. Countries where Good and Evil were compromised used means to keep people psychologically separate, killed their heroes, lacked skills in resolving conflicts and found opportunities for opposing sides in a conflict to each preserve their dignity. In contrast, Americans refused compromise between Good and Evil, sought to unify people. According to the findings of V. Lefebvre and J. Shreider's researches, mass self destruction was possible in the "Soviet" ethic system and impossible in the American ethic ability in people for their own welfare.

In this context it is importanat to study how people in post-communist country understand what is the violence, gender equality, violence on the gender base.

Now in the time of the postsoviet society transformation it is important to understand completely the inner psychological people constructs, the psychological models of postsoviet human behavior, the differences between people constructs in democratic and totalitarian societies, especially, in the context of gender equality and violence against women.

The objective of our research and practical work was to study the psychological behavior models of domestic violence victims and violators in Ukrainian post-totalitarian society, to develop the technologies of coping domestic violence by psychological consulting, trainings  and supporting women – victims of violence in social and legal context.

Today the people who lived in the former Soviet Union or one of he countries of Eastern Europe under totalitarian regimes are trying to understand how their experiences have effected them.

The primary goal of our researches was to identify the typical psychosocial constructs of people who lived under the communist totalitarian regime. We interested the psychological constructs of women position in the society, inside family, on workplaces.

The secondary goal of our research was to study how the different stratas of Ukrainian society understand what is really is the violence and violence against women especially.

The third goal of our researches and psychological practice was to use our results as a foundation for helping women in this region to build new psychological models oriented towards gender equality, creating the work and family life balance, overcoming the sexual harassment women discrimination on the workplace and women active participation in the political and social life. In the context of gender equality and human rights we were interesting also the relations between post-soviet women unpretentiousness, low self-esteem, readiness to bad work conditions and bad living conditions and real work and family misbalance.

Following this aim, we conducted a psychologically and psychohistorically-focused research project to grasp the nature of the current psychological constructs and to assess the social and psychological consequences of the soviet totalitarian regime on people, especially on women behavior models.

Now at the time of the post-soviet society transformation it is important to understand completely the inner psychological people constructs, the psychological models of postsoviet human behavior, the differences between people constructs in democratic and totalitarian societies.

Methods. On the first stage of our research we used the methods of cross-cultural –psycho-historical analysis of family traditions in Ukraine in the context of woman’s status and violence against women.

We conducted a psychologically and psycho-historically-focused research project to grasp the nature of the current psychological constructs and to assess the social and psychological consequences of the soviet totalitarian regime on women’ consciousness and behavior models.

We   used   methods   of    the    cross-cultural   and   psycho-historical analysis. The main directions of the psychological modeling:

·         cognitive;

·         emotional;

·          ethic-religious;

·         pattern proper (the system of attitudes and values).

In the context of cognitive level of psychological modeling we consider three sublevels of the analysis:

·         psycho-historical level;

·         informational level;

·         cognitive proper level.

On psycho-historical sublevel we analyzed the influence of past experience of the society to the person's psychological constructs and his(her) behavior. We considered also the social models of the past, present and future, psychosocial models of the individual, family, small group.

On the informational sublevel we analyzed the main directions of the soviet totalitarian information space functioning. We analyzed psychologically the society information space in the different periods of communist regime and the information space of the individual, family, small groups. We did the cross-cultural analysis of the designed society information space and the communist and post-communist societies information spaces. We considered also the information base of person's and her(his) family inner exile in communist society.

Proper cognitive sublevel is important. Stalin's paradigm that person is only the small part of the big machine created the special approach to the communist education system and the system of family upbringing. For example, in these systems there were paid no attention to developing the person's strategic thinking. Totalitarian communist society as we supposed had the direct influence on such human cognitive structures as strategic and tactical thinking, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, planning and judgment.

On the emotional level we considered three directions: person's needs, feelings and psychical status. We supposed that communist regime had the strong pressure on the development of human needs and feelings. We also interested in the correlation and domination of the different person's feelings on the psychical state of people and the society as the whole.

On the ethic-religious level of psychological modeling we considered two sublevels: spiritual and comparative. The communist ideology as we could see above invaded to the very deep spiritual structures of the person. It is important to analyze how deep and constant was this intervention. The conceptions of God, life and death, Good and Evil were the subjects of the communist propaganda. It is important to understand how families and people adopted communist ethic system, what models of behavior created the communist slogans such as "The goal justify the means" or "We have to obtain this result by any worth".

On the level of the pattern proper modeling we consider the main person's attitudes that define his(her) believes and behavior. We consider three parts of these attitudes: attitudes of person to Life and Death, to his (her) own life and state of health, to her(his) safety; some social attitudes: to Power(governmental structures), to Law, to Family, to Work; to Violence; attitudes to surviving conceptions and skills (I am a victim or I am a survivor).

 On the second stage of the research we wanted to know how much the views of the population about the domestic violence coincide with the understanding of it in the world.

Our research consisted of two parts – carrying out an expert group and surveying the population.

To work in the expert group there were invited 9 people that in some ways have to deal with the  violence against women or with domestic violence as the whole.  They either contribute to its prevention, or help the victims of violence, or work on the changes in the legislation of Ukraine . There were the representatives of both public and private organizations among the experts.

Social surveys were conducted in the two main directions:

*        surveying the upperclassmen (boys and girls aged 14-17, the students of Kyiv and Kyiv region schools);

*        surveying the adult population (women  and men of Kyiv, Mykolaiv, Lviv, Uzhgorod, Pervomaisk – 145 people total).

This part of the research was realized together with Katerina Babenko.

       We developed  the psychological technology of domestic violence victims help in the conditions of post-totalitarian society – individual consulting, psychological work with groups of victims, training, developing and publishing popular notes, booklets and brochures, working on radio and TV, answering for women questions in the popular magazines and newspapers.

We consulted more then 150 women – victims of domestic violence. We realized 10 training programs for 120 women and 5 programs for women’s groups.

Results

         As for first goal of our research let us see some results of our analysis on cognitive level. On the psycho historical level we could see how the last experience of the society, social models of the past, present and future inside family, educational system and social thinking have the influence on the person's inner life and behavior. We discussed the consequences of the Soviet Power activity to the life of families, children, and women...

         As for women they always know that they are responsible for the whole family life, for the secret character of family life, for their constant patience for the violent actions from their husbands.

On the informative sublevel of analysis we can see how Communist Power created the specific information space for people. Many cultural treasures were removed from local museums and not available for people. The information space was strongly defined for people. Each radio receiver in Stalin's time was registrated by NKVD (later KGB). Later in Chruchev and Brejnev time the politics of the strong control of the information space continued in other, not so strong form. As for the violence against personality and violence against women it was any information in the soviet and some time in post-soviet information space. “Any information – any problem!”

On the cognitive proper level communist educational system worked. The main task of this educational machine was the developing of certain people’s mental structures that could be helpful in the military enterprises on a middle level of decision. This educational system was very far from the developing of the personality freethinking, his (her) strategic thinking, decision making, own responsibility.

Paternalism was also one of the main features that had the ordinary soviet person. In the whole on the cognitive level of modeling we can see that the cognitive space of soviet personality had such characteristics:

·         limited information space;

·         the absence of freedom;

·         the fear as the constant emotional life manager;

·         the lie as the way of the person's surviving;

·         absence of the person's strategic thinking;

·         absence of the planning skills that so necessary for person. At the same time there was the informational pressure for the person with the slogan: "We are living in the planning society";

·         unmoulding of "time feeling", the absence of responsible relations between time and person actions;

·         the attack to the national languages and traditions, destroying of the inner harmony of the person that he/she acquires across the unification of the national mental/emotional space and nature conditions.

 

In this context we could pick out the System of the Psychological Jails of Soviet Person. This system has the big influence for the society in the time of the social, psychological, political and economical transitions.

The main of cognitive psychological jails of post-soviet people are:

    - strategical jails;

·         jails of planning;

·         jails of negative image of economical activity;

·         jail of unpretentiousness (notion about life quality).

Last jail was one of the reason that many women had a big patience for violence against them. Women thought that to be victim is very usual. As main manager of the family life she was ready to patience to her husband’s alcoholism, violent behavior, to not only physical but psychological violence.

Communist regime established the special balance between people small needs, small salaries and small quantities of goods in stores.

Ukraine during the existence of soviet regime was under special attention of Soviet Power. It was created the strategy to move all Ukrainian talented and active persons to Central Zone of active thinking and more interesting life - to Moscow , especially. During the soviet period Ukraine was loosing not only millions people at the time of artificial famine, time of collectivization, time of World War II but systematically was loosing most active people who worked in the Central Committee of Communist Party, in Government, in many scientific institutes and military enterprises in Russia. Many Ukrainians extracted mineral oil in Siberia and continue to work for extracting mineral oil now.

As for second goal of our research we studied the attitudes of Ukrainian population to the violence against women on the base of the system of women and men psychological behavior models in totalitarian post-soviet families we analyzed the typical situations of domestic violence inside families, social, legal issues. We published over 30 popular notes, brochures and booklets for people about human rights, prevention and coping of domestic violence.

Violence against women, domestic violence is a notion that is in some sense new for Ukraine . Now many translations of the international documents are being published, where domestic violence and violence against women is denoted as one of the main kinds of violence. To understand how exactly people interpret the notion «domestic violence», we included the direct question «what forms of conduct do you consider to be domestic violence?» into the survey.

         Let’s look at the answers of our respondents in this context.  They were given the list of the kinds of violent conduct, that forms the violence according to the international conventions and declarations.  As one can see from the graph 1, 60% of the respondents think that all these kinds of behavior are the sign of violence.  Beating and other kinds of physical violence hold the first place (98%). Among the kinds of psychological violence the most common is stressing the shortcomings (91%). And such kinds of mental violence, as economical control, compulsion to a certain choice and ignoring are not considered to be a domestic violence at all by one third of the respondents. This is what the adult population thinks.

         It turned out, that (see graph 2) 63% of the respondents consider beating and using the physical force to be a domestic violence, 35% -- compulsion to sex, 29% -- restrictions, 28% -- yelling and curse words, 23% -- humiliating.  Only 9% of the respondents consider economical and mental control and ignoring as the forms of domestic violence.

As for the teenagers, it turned out that they distinguish the physical and mental violence even more.  About 2/3 of boys and girls do not consider dirty cursing, ignoring as the forms of violence. And about 1/3 do not consider continuous humiliating, prohibition of communication, compulsion, and economical control as the forms of violence.

 published over 30 popular notes, brochures and booklets for people about human rights,  prevention and coping  of domestic violence, cooperated with city administration and social workers in the  process of legal, social and psychological prevention and overcoming of domestic violence in the society at the time of transition.

What’s even more interesting is that there are a lot of differences in understanding violence between boys and girls. This is the most noticeable with the psychological violence.

The results of the research showed  that there are traditional stereotypes in the society about the role of wife and husband in the family and society.  These stereotypes are common not only among the adult population, but among the teenagers as well.   One of such stereotypes is the following:  «the only role and task of the wife is taking care of the house, husband and children». In such context, a woman should not care about her career; develop as a professional, self-realize.  As one can notice from the graph 3, 70.2 % of boys think that the main roles of the woman are the roles of «hostess» and «mother».  They think that taking care of the house and children upbringing is not a men’s, but a women’s job.  56.7% of boys think that career prevents a woman from being a nice mother and wife.  76.1% of boys see a husband as the head of the family, the one that has the right to control the family life.  Girls have another point of view (See graph 3).

We have the big changes in the context of violence against women last time. We can see 3 main tendencies:

·         many men began to work in the business structures and have much money. Many of them began to realize their pain, fear and angry against women, especially their mother (see the situation with totalitarian family after World war II). These man are realizing the new violent system in their family as the system of violence against their wives and children. Level of violence against woman in such family is very high.

These men are realizing violent behavior models against women in their offices too;

·         there is high level of violence against women and girls inside poor families. Man as husband and father blames women in his family in all his and family problems. These conditions of the family life are one of the main reasons of woman or girl going to trafficking situation4

·         the society begin to understand the importance of the violence victims defense and the prevention of violence against women.

Now there is (from 2005) the Ukrainian Law “The prevention of violence inside family”. It is declarative Law but there is some moving of NGOs and some state structure for changing and real implementation of this Law.

         As for trafficking some results of our researches showed that one of the main reasons of women’s getting into the human trafficking net is violence in the family. It turns out that women lose (even had never had from their childhood) their dignity and are getting during their life in such families the following stigmas: “ignoramus”. “lazybones”, “nothing”.

The victims of domestic violence are easy to be deceived. They are ready to run

away from such a family and believe in any “fairy tales”.

The stigmas with some negative psychological characteristics, which they receive in their families, promote increased trust of the victims and their dreams about life in paradise.

Girls who are victims of domestic violence become the victims also in the school. It is the reason of person’s self-stigmatization developing:

“I am ignoramus”;

“I am the worst”;

“I am good-for-nothing”.

There is also stigmatization from the side of her relatives: “A bad girl”;

         “Good for nothing”;

         “You bring only problems”;

         “Foolish”.

In post-totalitarian patriarchal family parents consider their daughter to be their possession.

They may let her down, may lose their temper and evaluate their daughter according to her marks at school or quality of completed work given by her mother or father. When daughter’s achievement don’t fit parents’ requirements in some cases, when a girl doesn’t get certain amount of grades, defined by one of the parents, she is punished and let down etc. Step by step and girl already has stigmas “good for nothing”, “not talented’, ‘loser”, etc.

         As a result of psychological (and very often physical) violence low self-esteem is being shaped and the process of self-stigmatization is being developed.

They are deprived of responsibility for their own life and even documents. Such people- the victims of violence psychologically, are ready either to give their documents to human dealer as to a kind of “father” or can protect their rights.

According  to the data of the social survey of the population, the results of work of expert group, focus groups and thorough interviews we may mark out certain types of families, people from which trap into nets of slavery more often:

·          patriarchal, totalitarian family;

·         functionally;

·         a family which is in the critical situation.

The stigmas emerge in the search of somebody who is guilty.

We can see a new model of contemporary totalitarian patriarchal family, especially in the depressive regions of Ukraine ,

In such families a child must obey his parents entirely. The parents know better where she must study, what she must eat, who she must date with, where she must work. The main thesis in such style of upbringing – “You are good-for- nothing without me!” 

On the graph 4 we can see development and moving of girls’ stigmas in the situation of her upbringing in the family violent situation.

As for third goal of our research we  consulted more then 150 women – victims of domestic violence. We created the training program “Job Club” for helping women to move to their economic independence. We realized 10 training programs for 120 women. More then 50% of women who were trainees of Job Club Program found job.

         Ukraine is moving into direction for prevention and overcoming violence against women.

The reality of the situation is:

·         There are only two shelters for victims in all of Ukraine , one in the capital, administrated by the Kyiv Centre for Women with capacity for 15 persons and one in Kharkiv, run by a NGO.

 ·         Social services housing do not exist. Fear of becoming homeless stops many abused women from leaving their offender.

 ·         The cooperation between medical social and legal authorities must be substantially increased. Too many victims find that cooperation in reality does not exist.

 ·         There is rehabilitation for abused women in Kyiv at the same Center for Women, and organized by the NGO ROZRADA and the Fund for protection of victims of violence. 300-400 victims every year receive help through the center, including vocational training in order to obtain functional independence.

 ·         No rehabilitation programs for the perpetrators exist in Ukraine .  

·         No possibilities to stop violence. NGOs, Ministry of family, youth and sport understand the importance of the developing and realization of the National Program “Stop violence”. We hope for success in this direction.

    References

1.      Ponomarjov A.( 1993) Family and family ceremonies, in “Culture and  mode of life of Ukrainian population (Ed. by V. Naulko).-Kyiv,1993,pp. 175-202. On Ukranian.

2.      Rancour-Laferrier Daniel (1995) “The slave soul of Russia . New York : New York University , 1993.

3. Geller M. (1994). “The machine and the screws” “MIK”, Moscow-1994.

4. The small Soviet encyclopedia. (1930). Volume 7, Art. “Family legislation”.

5. Geoffrey Hosking(1994).  A history of the Soviet Union 1917—1991, “Vagrius”. Moscow , 1994.

6. A . Zalkind( 1924). The Revolution and the Youth, In “Rodnick”. 1989, Vol.10, pp. 63-65.

7. Wilhelm Reich (1997). The mass psychology of fascism. A Condor Book Souveneir Press (Educational) and Academic LID. Translated into Russian. University book. S.-Petesburg.-1997.

8. Euripid (1950). Medea. Greece Tragedy. State publishing house. Moscow.-1950.

9. Tramine du Plessix Gray (1990). Soviet Women. Walking the Tightrope. Double day. N.Y. .213 p.

10. Leonid Bejin. (1992). The Mothers’ power. Nezavisimaya Gazeta. 12.23.1992.

------------------

Valentyna Bondarovska  
Between East and West – the importance of Navigating Political Climates in the Effort to End Violence Against Women

Trust Fund supported 2 Ukrainian NGOs:

    ·         International Humanitarian Center “ROZRADA” ;

·        School of Equal Opportunities.

The objectives of grants were:

·      To amend and enforce Laws of domestic violence;

·      To ensure the protection for survivors;

·      To increase the capacities of service providers;

·      To create a local model of prevention and response to victims.

Programme results:

·         Improvements in the existing domestic violence legislation – there are changes in legislation that are active from 1 January 2009, especially directed to stopping violence and implementing corrective programs with perpetrators;

·         Increased capacities of 2000 central and local  service providers in 4 pilot regions, including  on detection of abuse and psychological support;

·         Integration of violence against women issues in the country’s Parliamentary Agenda, by highlighting gender discrimination as the main obstacle to democratization;

·         Increased governmental responses: regional governments adopted the Law on Social Housing and created the specific fund for survivors of violence.

 

Role of UN Trust Fund support:

·         improving existing Laws;

·         development of response  for survivors;

·         enabling the real collaboration of NGOs with Ministry of Ukraine for family, youth and sport and Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine;

·         enabling the collaboration of all local institutions that are responsible for responses for survivors – in the prevention of violence, stopping violence and assisting survivors;

·         creating and developing All-Ukrainian Campaign “Stop violence!” – for support of initiative of the UN General Secretary. Developing of Action Platform and Working Plan.

ISSUES:

·         the most effective NGOs projects for last years;

·         the role of UN Trust fund was very important – not only financial support but also strategic, systematic assistance;

·         it is necessary to continue these efforts – to share the information, the methods, the experience in all regions of Ukraine – to go to each village and small town, to each school and library…

Between East and West Ukraine there are political and economic tensions but simultaneously there is great opportunity for change and overcoming of challenges, to further the move to democracy.

With the help of the international community and by strengthening developmental partnerships between the Ukraine and other countries, we all have the opportunity to move from post-soviet psychological behavior models to gender equality and democratic responses to ending violence against women.

------------------------

          UNITED NATIONS TRUST FUND

          TO END VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

          UKRAINE

          2 PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED

          BY

          INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN CENTER ‘ROZRADA’

          Project “NO-violence! Do Ukraine the territory without domestic violence!”

          AND

          SCHOOL OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES

          Project “Violence against women: Effectiveness and System  Approach to Prevention and

          Elimination”

December 2006 – November 2008

          IHC “ROZRADA” CONCRETE RESULTS:

          There were developed:

        The training modules and text book for  trainers.

        The methods of supervision of trainers working.

        The method of violence victims revealing.

        The method of psychological helping to adult domestic violence victim.

        The method of psychological helping to child who suffered from violence or abuse.

        The methods of master classes providing for practical psychologists and social workers.

          There were realized:

           4 experts’ meetings.

          8 trainings for trainers.

          Trainings for persons who directly is working with crisis families and domestic violence.

          4 supervisions.

          8 master classes.

          6 curator’s meetings.

          The Use of Resources vs. number of beneficiaries

Resources

Kiev Region

Poltava Region

Vinnica Region

Zhitomir Region

Human: Trainers

20

20

20

20

Number of trainings

15

25

27

50

Number of trainees

260

440

553

900

Financial (in $)

1186,61

888,78

1286,62

1903,64

                 There were published:

          3 booklets.

          2 notes.

          Brochure for specialists.

          Textbook;

          4 region collections.

--------------------

News!
"Men and women", I.Didkovska

Why we are so different, but so necessary for each other
On the beginning of 3d millennium as on the beginning of time we still know a little about the relationships between man and woman. And we try to find pieces of knowledge on the fields of family battles.
This booklet is dedicated to all men and women that appeared in the situation when they cry to his or her partner "Why you do not understand me?"
Mutual understanding disappears. Men can not understand why women do not behave themselves as a men and vice versa.
Men differs from women but it does not mean that one sex is better than other.
From the one hand, the differences are obvious. Biologists know that fact. From the other hand, contemporary life shows us that men and women have equal possibilities, they both are talanted and can to master different professions. It is obviously, that each thesis is true. Potential possibilities are the same, but the ways of the realization of them are different. Equality does not mean identity.
Without any doubts, men and women are equal, but also they are different.
But we can see the good side in these differences: if you can understand the origin of the differences, you can use them for your relationships, you can find them even rather attractive.
Men want to have a power, success and sex. Women tend to warm relationships, stability and love. It is senselessly to take offence on this as it is senselessly to take offence on the rain. If we accept the fact of the rain we can take an umbrella. In the same way knowing the fact of the possibilities of misunderstanding and conflicts can help us to predict and to prevent them. And this is the first step towards relationships that suit for both partners.
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News!

"Human rights on the different stages of family life", O.Kurilenkî

First memories may be of each person are connected with family.

"It is necessary to provide protection and assistance to the family as to the main part of the society and natural surrounding for the growing and well-being of all it's members, especially children, in order the family can fully realize it's duties in the society" (From the Preamble of UNO Convention of children rights)

According to the principles of the UNO Status recognition of the dignity, equal and inalienable rights of all members of the society are the basis for the guaranteeing of the freedom, justice and peace on the Earth. Good and warm memories about the family - is the great support for the person during all life.
Family - is a complex system of the relationships. Each family member has his/her own place, function and satisfies not only his/her own needs but also the needs of other family members. Realization or violation of the rights of each family member connected just with the fulfillment or not of his or her functions.

 

"I Am a Woman…I Am Scared?", M. Veselovska, N.Shyshlova. This brochure was published with support of the UNIFEM Fund, 1998

This brochure tells us about violations of human rights in the family and violence against women. The brochure gives some examples and provides advice on how to prevent such incidents and where to seek help once they have occurred. This brochure is an attempt to help a person who is suffering as a result of insult, aggressiveness or violence. We provide information on how to protect oneself, one's dignity and rights.
We wish that misfortune would never happen to you, but once it did, let out advice on how to protect yourself be useful for you. The most important thing is not to be left alone with the trouble. Seek for help and support. Find like-minded people, experienced lawyers, psychologists and social workers, which will help you to break the bonds of violence. Remember, you have the right to live freely and safely, not fearing; you have the right to be happy. Keep in mind - no matter who helps you - the person who is most interested in your rescue is you.
Do not give up but act!
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"I Am a Woman, I Am Scared, I Can!" K. Babenko, I. Didkovska. This booklet was published with support of the UNIFEM Fund, 1998

What one has to know about violence?
Who can become a victim of violence?
What can you do to decrease the risk of becoming a victim of violence?
What can you do if you are being attacked?
Every woman, even if she is scared, can be attentive and prudent.
What you need to know about the people who use violence.
If you have become the victim of violence.
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"How Stress Influences Your Health", T. Kulbachka. This booklet was published with support of the UNIFEM Fund, 1998

Almost every woman can think of a time when she could have become or did become a victim of violence. Any kind of violence - physical, sexual or moral - makes a substantial traumatic influence not only on her life and health, but also on her attitude to self and others.
Having suffered from violence, you loose control over your fortune, belief in your abilities; you stop trusting people. Stress reaction that appear in the result of suffering from violence can drastically change your personality and behavior.
If you have become a victim of violence, remember that nothing of a kind that could change you has happened. You are still the same person, with the same virtues as you were before the incident. Don't let yourself feel guilty; don't keep telling yourself "I wish I…", "If I didn't…", "I should have…".
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"What Can We Do to Prevent Domestic Violence", V.Bondarovska. This brochure was published with support of the UNIFEM Fund, 1999

How often we become the victims of domestic violence!
We are being hurt, humiliated, isolated, yelled at or even beaten. Women and children suffer from domestic violence the most. Historically it happened that a woman has never been equal to a man in the family; she is physically weaker. A husband, who is the breadwinner, could often yell at his wife or even hit her. We are not even talking about the children. All of us often splash our aggressiveness at our children, saying such things as "I will kill you!" or "Get off my eyes!" We often play the role of a giant who can manage the life and fortune of the relatives. A woman can be forbidden to work or go out of the house and a child has no rights at all. The child's duty is to obey and to do whatever the adults say.
Can anyone feel happy under such conditions? Can we change the relations in the family, can we make equal and friendly everyone in it? Yes, we can.
This brochure provides materials on what is a totalitarian and a partner family; what rights you have as a personality and what rights other person has; how not to exceed one's power over the child; how to overcome child's fears, to teach it a safe behavior, to answer its difficult questions, to prevent child's psychological traumas.
It turned out that knowing quite simple things will help you, dear readers, to prevent domestic violence in your families, to make your lives more happy, to build partner relations between parents and children, to build harmonious relations between people of different generations.

 

"A Conflict: A Threat Or An Opportunity?", K. Babenko, I.Didkovska. This booklet was published with support of the Department of Press, Education and Culture of the US Embassy in Ukraine, 1999

The word "conflict" evokes negative associations for the most people.

There are several reasons why we try not to start a conflict.
It is scary to conflict. You can ruin the relationship and loose the person who is dear and close to you.
It is wrong to conflict. We are afraid to be labeled as a "quarrelling", "hysterical" and "unkind" person.
The previous experience tell us that conflict hurts. Many of us have memories about the parents' quarrels and about that horrible tension that they caused. The way our parents solved their conflict is often the only model of problems resolution in the relations with other people.
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"Let's Say No to Women Discrimination in the Workplace", V. Bondarovska. This brochure was prepared and published with support of the Organization of Young Christian Women, 2001

Ukraine has joined the UN Convention on Liquidation of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. It is stated in the Article 11 of this Convention that the member-states are obliged to take all the necessary measures for liquidation of discrimination against women in the labor market for the purpose of granting women and men equal rights for work; equal hiring opportunities; the right for free job choices; the right for job promotion; the right for equal remuneration; social security rights, in particular, pension rights; the right for health protection and for safe working conditions, including the protection of women's reproductive function.
The Constitution of Ukraine guarantees granting the basic rights such as the right for work, the right for safe working conditions, the right for equal remuneration without discrimination on the basis of sex .

 

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